Digital-age social research will involve situations where reasonable, well-meaning people will disagree about ethics.
To keep things concrete, I’ll start with three examples of digital-age studies that have generated ethical controversy. I’ve selected these particular studies for two reasons. First, there are no easy answers about any of them. That is, reasonable, well-meaning people disagree about whether these studies should have happened and what changes might improve them. Second, these studies embody many of the principles, frameworks, and areas of tension that will follow later in the chapter.