### 5.3.4 Isiphetho

Vula izingcingo kukuvumela ukuba uthole izixazululo ezinkingeni ongakusho ngokucacile kodwa ukuthi awukwazi ukuzixazulula wena.

Kuzo zonke call amaphrojekthi-Netflix ezintathu evulekile Prize, Foldit, peer-to-Patent-abacwaningi ebuza imibuzo ifomu ethize, uceliwe izixazululo, sabe sesithatha izixazululo best. Abacwaningi akazange ngisho badinga ukwazi uchwepheshe engcono ukubuza, futhi ngezinye izikhathi kwafika imibono emihle evela ezindaweni ezingalindelekile.

Manje ngiyakwazi ukugqokisa umehluko obalulekile ababili phakathi kwemiklamo yokuvula evulekile namaphrojekthi wokubala abantu. Okokuqala, kumaphrojekthi wokuvula ucingo umcwaningi ucacisa umgomo (isb., Ukubikezela ukulinganisa kwe-movie), kanti ekubalweni komuntu, umcwaningi ucacisa i-microtask (isb., Ukuhlukanisa i-galaxy). Okwesibili, ezingcingo ezivuliwe, abacwaningi bafuna impumelelo engcono kakhulu-njengengqayizivele ye-algorithm engcono yokubikezela ukulinganiswa kwe-movie, ukumiswa kwamandla aphansi kunamaprotheni, noma ucezu oluphambili kakhulu lwezobuciko-hhayi uhlobo oluthile lwenhlanganisela elula yazo zonke iminikelo.

Njengoba kunikezwe ithempulethi evamile yamakholi avulekile kanye nalezi zibonelo ezintathu, yiziphi izinhlobo zezinkinga ekucwaningweni kwezenhlalakahle ezingahle zifanelekele le ndlela? Ngalesi sikhathi, kufanele ngivume ukuthi azikho izibonelo eziningi eziphumelelayo okwamanje (ngenxa yezizathu engizozichaza ngomzuzwana). Ngokwezilinganiso eziqondile, umuntu angacabanga ukuthi isitayela se-Peer-to-Patent evuliwe esetshenziswa ngumcwaningi womlando ukucinga idokhumenti yokuqala ukukhuluma ngomuntu othize noma umbono. Indlela yokuvulela evulekile kulolu hlobo lwenkinga ingabaluleka ngokukhethekile lapho imibhalo engase ibe khona ingekho ku-archive eyodwa kodwa isakazwa kakhulu.

Ngokuvamile, ohulumeni abaningi nezinkampani banezinkinga ezingase zikwazi ukuvula izingcingo ngoba izingcingo ezivulekile zingakwazi ukudala izilungiswa ezingasetshenziselwa ukubikezela, futhi lezi zibikezelo zingaba isiqondiso esibalulekile sinyathelo (Provost and Fawcett 2013; Kleinberg et al. 2015) . Isibonelo, njengoba nje i-Netflix ifuna ukubikezela ukulinganiswa kumabhayisikobho, ohulumeni bangase bafune ukubikezela imiphumela njengokuthi yiziphi izindawo zokudlela ezingase zibe nokuphulwa kwekhodi yezempilo ukuze zinikeze izinsiza zokuhlola ngokucophelela. Ekhuthazwa yilolu hlobo lwenkinga, u-Edward Glaeser nozakwethu (2016) basebenzisa ucingo oluvulekile ukusiza uMuzi waseBoston ukubikezela ukuphulwa kokungcebeleka kwezokudlela nezokuthuthwa kwendle okusekelwe kulwazi oluvela ku-Yelp ukubuyekezwa kanye nedatha yokuhlola yomlando. Balinganiselwa ukuthi imodeli yokubikezela eyaluthola ucingo oluvulekile ingathuthukisa ukukhiqizwa kwabahloli bokudlela nge-50%.

Vula amakholi angase asetshenziselwe ukuqhathanisa nokuhlola amakhophi. Isibonelo, i-Fragile Families ne-Child Wellbeing Study ilandele izingane ezingaba ngu-5 000 kusukela ekuzalweni emadolobheni angu-20 ahlukene ase-US (Reichman et al. 2001) . Abacwaningi baqoqe idatha mayelana nalezi zingane, imindeni yabo, kanye nemvelo yabo ebanzi ngesikhathi sokuzalwa futhi eminyakeni engu-1, 3, 5, 9, neminyaka engu-15. Njengoba unikezwe lonke ulwazi mayelana nalezi zingane, ingabe abacwaningi bangabikezela kahle imiphumela efana nokuthi ubani ozoqeda esikoleni? Noma, echazwe ngendlela ezoba yithakazelisayo kwabanye abacwaningi, yikuphi idatha nezinkomba ezizophumelela kakhulu ekubikezeleni lezi ziphumo? Njengoba akekho kulaba bantwana okwamanje asebekhulile ngokwanele ukuya ekolishi, lokhu kungaba ukubikezela kwangempela okubheke phambili, futhi kukhona amasu amaningi ahlukene abacwaningi abangasebenzisa. Umcwaningi okholelwa ukuthi izindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekile ekubumbeni imiphumela yokuphila zingathatha indlela eyodwa, kanti umcwaningi ogxile emindenini angenza okuthile okuhluke ngokuphelele. Yiyiphi yalezi zindlela ezosebenza kangcono? Asazi, futhi ngesikhathi sokuthola, singase sifunde okuthile okubalulekile ngemindeni, emakhemeni, emfundweni, nokungalingani kwezenhlalakahle. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lezi zibikezelo zingase zisetshenziselwe ukuqondisa ukuqoqwa kwedatha yesikhathi esizayo. Cabanga ukuthi kwakukhona inani elincane labaphothule ekolishi abangazange babikezelwe ukuba baphumelele nganoma yimaphi amamodeli; laba bantu babezoba abahlelekile ekuxoxweni okulandelwayo okulandelwayo kanye nokubukwa kwe-ethnographic. Ngakho-ke, kulolu hlobo lwekholi evulekile, ukubikezela akusilo ukuphela; Kunalokho, banikeza indlela entsha yokuqhathanisa, yokucebisa, nokuhlanganisa amasiko ahlukene ahlukene. Lolu hlobo lwekholi oluvulekile alucaci ukusebenzisa idatha kusuka ku-Fragile Families ne-Child Wellbeing Study ukuze ubikezele ukuthi ubani ozoya ekolishi; ingasetshenziselwa ukubikezela noma yimiphi imiphumela ezogcina iqoqwe kunoma iyiphi i-longitudinal idatha yezenhlalo.

Njengoba ngibhala ekuqaleni kwalesi sigaba, azikho izibonelo eziningi zabacwaningi bezenhlalo abasebenzisa izingcingo ezivulekile. Ngicabanga ukuthi lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izingcingo ezivulekile azihambisani kahle nendlela ososayensi bezenhlalakahle ababuza ngayo imibuzo yabo. Ukubuyela kumvuzo we-Netflix, ososayensi bezenhlalakahle ngeke bacele ngokubikezela ukuthanda; Kunalokho, babezobuza ukuthi kungani ukuthanda izinto zamasiko kuhluke kanjani kubantu abavela emakilasini ahlukene abantu (bheka isib, Bourdieu (1987) ). Umbuzo onjalo othi "kanjani" nokuthi "kungani" ungakhokheli kwizixazululo eziqinisekisiwe kalula, ngakho-ke kubonakala sengathi awufanelekile ukuvula izingcingo. Ngakho-ke, kubonakala sengathi izingcingo ezivulekile zifanelekile ukubikezela imibuzo kunemibuzo yencazelo . Kodwa-ke, i-theorists yakamuva, iye yabiza ososayensi bezenhlalakahle ukuba babuye bacabange kabusha nge-dichotomy phakathi kwencazelo nokubikezelwa (Watts 2014) . Njengomugqa ophakathi kokubikezela kanye nokuchazwa kwencazelo, ngilindele ukuthi izingcingo ezivulekile ziyobe zivame ukucwaninga kwezenhlalo.