4.5.1 Sebenzisa izindawo ezikhona

Ungakwazi ukusebenzisa ukuhlolwa ngaphakathi ezindaweni ekhona, ngokuvamile ngaphandle yimuphi esephepheni noma ubambiswano.

Ngokuzenzekelayo, indlela elula yokwenza ukuhlolwa kwedijithali ukugqama ukuhlolwa kwakho phezulu kwendawo ekhona. Ukuhlolwa okunjalo kungasetshenziswa ngendlela enkulu kakhulu futhi akudingi ukubambisana nenkampani noma ukuthuthukiswa kwesofthiwe enkulu.

Isibonelo, uJennifer Doleac noLuke Stein (2013) basebenzise indawo emakethe ye-inthanethi efana ne-Craigslist ukuze baqalise ukulinganisa okulinganiselwe ukucwaswa ngokohlanga. Bhangisa izinkulungwane zama-iPod, futhi ngokuhlelekile ukuhlukahluka kwezici zomdayisi, bakwazi ukutadisha umphumela womncintiswano wokuthengiswa komnotho. Ngaphezu kwalokho, basebenzisa isilinganiselwa sokuzama kwabo ukulinganisa lapho umphumela wawukhudlwana (imiphumela ye-heterogeneity yemiphumela yokwelapha) futhi unikeze imibono yokuthi kungani umphumela ungase uvele (izindlela).

Izikhangiso ze-iPod ze-Doleac no-Stein zihlukahlukene ngezindlela ezintathu eziyinhloko. Okokuqala, abacwaningi bahluke izici zomthengisi, okwakubhalwe uphawu lwesithombe esine-iPod [emhlophe, emnyama, emhlophe ngomdwebo] (Umfanekiso 4.13). Okwesibili, bahluke intengo ecelayo [$90,$ 110, \$ 130]. Okwesithathu, bahluke ikhwalithi yombhalo wesikhangiso [okusezingeni eliphezulu kanye nekhwalithi ephansi (isib., Amaphutha we-CApitalization namaphutha we-spelin)]. Ngakho-ke, abalobi babe nomklamo we-3 $$\times$$ 3 $$\times$$ 2 owadluliselwa ezimakethe ezingaphezu kuka-300 zendawo, kusukela emadolobheni (isib. IKokomo, Indiana naseNyakatho Platte, eNebraska) amadolobha (isib., eNew York naseLos Angeles).

Elinganiselwe kuzo zonke izimo, imiphumela yaba ngcono kubathengisi abamhlophe kunabathengisi abamnyama, nabathengisi abathandwayo abanemiphumela ephakathi. Isibonelo, abathengisi abamhlophe bathola izinhlinzeko eziningi futhi babe namanani aphezulu okudayiswa kokugcina. Ngaphandle kwemiphumela ejwayelekile, u-Doleac no-Stein balinganisa ukuthi i-heterogeneity yemiphumela. Isibonelo, ukubikezela okunye okuvela embonweni wangaphambili ukuthi ukubandlululwa kuzobe kungaphansi kwamakethe lapho kunokuncintisana okuningi phakathi kwabathengi. Ukusebenzisa inani lezinhlinzeko kulowo makethe njengesilinganiso somncintiswano womthengi, abacwaningi bathola ukuthi abathengisi abamnyama benza ngempela ukuthola izipesheli ezimakethe ezinezinga eliphansi lokuncintisana. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokuqhathanisa imiphumela yezikhangiso ezinezici eziphezulu nezingazingeni eliphansi, u-Doleac no-Stein bathole ukuthi izinga lesikhangiso alizange lithinte ukukhubazeka okubhekene nabathengisi abamnyama nabadwebayo. Ekugcineni, besebenzisa iqiniso lokuthi izikhangisi zafakwa ezimakethe ezingaphezu kuka-300, abalobi bathola ukuthi abathengisi abamnyama babehlezi kakhulu emadolobheni abanezinga eliphezulu lobugebengu nokuhlukaniswa okuphezulu. Ayikho yale miphumela eyenza siqonde kahle ukuthi kungani abathengisi abamnyama babe nemiphumela emibi kakhulu, kodwa uma behlangene nemiphumela yezifundo, bangase baqale ukwazisa imibono mayelana nezimbangela zokucwaswa ngokobuhlanga ezinhlotsheni ezahlukene zokuthengiswa kwezomnotho.

Esinye isibonelo esibonisa ikhono labacwaningi ukuqhuba ukuhlolwa kwenkambu yedijithali ezinkambisweni ezikhona yi-Arnout van de Rijt kanye nozakwethu (2014) ngezihluthulelo zokuphumelela. Ezingxenyeni eziningi zokuphila, abantu ababonakala befana nabo baphela ngemiphumela ehluke kakhulu. Enye incazelo engase ibe yile ndlela iwukuthi izinzuzo ezincane-futhi ngokuyinhloko okungahleliwe zingangena futhi zikhule ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, inqubo abacwaningi ababiza ngayo inzuzo yokuqoqa . Ukuze kunqunywe ukuthi impumelelo encane yokuqala ingena noma iphela, i-van de Rijt kanye nosebenza nabo (2014) bahlanganyele emasimini amane ahlukene abanika impumelelo kubahlanganyeli abakhethiwe ngokungahleliwe, bese balinganisa imiphumela elandelayo yalolu phumelela.

Ngokuqondile, i-van de Rijt kanye nozakwethu (1) bathembisa imali kumaphrojekthi akhethiwe ngokungahleliwe ku-Kickstarter, iwebhusayithi ye-crowdfunding; (2) ngokulinganisela kubalwa izibuyekezo ezikhethiwe ngokungahleliwe kuma-Epinions, iwebhusayithi yokubuyekezwa komkhiqizo; (3) unikeze imiklomelo yabahleli abakhethiwe ku-Wikipedia; futhi (4) isayine izicelo ezikhethiwe ngezikhathi ezithile ku-change.org. Bathole imiphumela efana kakhulu kuzo zonke izinhlelo ezine: kuleso simo ngasinye, ababambiqhaza abaye banikezwa impumelelo yangaphambilini baqala ukuba nempumelelo elandelayo kunezontanga zabo ezingafani ngokuphelele (umfanekiso 4.14). Iqiniso lokuthi iphethini elifanayo livele ezinkambisweni eziningi landisa ukusebenza kwangaphandle kwale miphumela ngoba kunciphisa ithuba lokuthi leli phethini liyi-artifact yanoma iyiphi indlela ethile.

Ngokubodwa, lezi zibonelo ezimbili zibonisa ukuthi abacwaningi bangaqhuba ukuhlolwa kwenkambu yedijithali ngaphandle kwesidingo sokusebenzisana nezinkampani noma ukwakha izinhlelo eziyinkimbinkimbi zedijithali. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ithebula 4.2 linikeza izibonelo ezengeziwe ezikhombisa ububanzi bezinto ezingenzeka uma abacwaningi basebenzisa ingqalasizinda yamasistimu akhona ukuletha ukwelashwa kanye / noma ukukala imiphumela. Lezi zivivinyo zingabizi kakhulu kubacwaningi futhi zinikeza izinga eliphakeme lobuqiniso. Kodwa banikeza abacwaningi ukulinganisa ukulawula phezu kwabahlanganyeli, ukwelashwa, kanye nemiphumela okufanele ilinganiswe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo ohlelweni olulodwa kuphela, abacwaningi kudingeka bakhathazeke ngokuthi imiphumela ingase iqhutshwe yizinhlelo ezithile eziqondene nesistimu (isib. Indlela iKickstarter ehlanganisa ngayo amaphrojekthi noma indlela edlulisa ngayo inguquko ehambisana nezicelo; ngolwazi oluthe xaxa, bheka ingxoxo mayelana nokuphazamiseka kwesimo se-algorithmic esahlukweni 2). Okokugcina, lapho abacwaningi bengenelela emisebenzini yokusebenza, imibuzo ekhohlisayo yokuziphatha ivela ngokulimala okungenzeka kubahlanganyeli, abangabambi iqhaza, kanye nezinhlelo. Sizocubungula lo mbuzo wokuziphatha ngokuningiliziwe kwisahluko 6, futhi kunengxoxo enhle kakhulu kubo kwisithasiselo sikaVan de Rijt et al. (2014) . I-trade-offs ezayo nokusebenza ohlelweni olukhona ayilungele yonke iphrojekthi, futhi ngenxa yalokho abanye abacwaningi bakhela uhlelo lwabo lokuhlola, njengoba ngizobonisa okulandelayo.

Ithebula 4.2: Izibonelo Zemizamo Yezinhlelo Ezikhona
Isihloko Izinkomba
Imiphumela yamabharstars eminikelweni ye-Wikipedia Restivo and Rijt (2012) ; Restivo and Rijt (2014) ; Rijt et al. (2014)
Umphumela womlayezo wokulwa nokuhlukunyezwa kuma-tweets e-racist Munger (2016)
Umphumela wendlela yokudayiswa ngentengo yokudayiswa Lucking-Reiley (1999)
Imiphumela yedumela ngamanani ku-intanethi ye-intanethi Resnick et al. (2006)
Umphumela womncintiswano womdayisi ekuthengisweni kwamakhadi e-baseball e-eBay Ayres, Banaji, and Jolls (2015)
Imiphumela yomncintiswano womthengisi ekuthengisweni kwama-iPod Doleac and Stein (2013)
Imiphumela yomjaho wezihambi eziqashisayo ze-Airbnb Edelman, Luca, and Svirsky (2016)
Imiphumela yeminikelo empumelelweni yamaphrojekthi ku-Kickstarter Rijt et al. (2014)
Umphumela wobuhlanga nobuhlanga ekuqashweni kwezindlu Hogan and Berry (2011)
Umphumela wezinga elihle lokulinganisa okuzayo ngezinsizane Rijt et al. (2014)
Imiphumela yamasignesha ekuphumeleleni kwezicelo Vaillant et al. (2015) ; Rijt et al. (2014) ; Rijt et al. (2016)