### 6.6.4 Ukwenza izinqumo ngaphakathi the bombo of ukungaqiniseki

Ukungaqiniseki akudingeki akuvezi lutho.

Indawo yesine nendawo yokugcina lapho ngilindele khona abacwaningi ukuba balwe nenkinga yenza izinqumo lapho bengabheki khona. Okusho ukuthi, emva kokufihla kwefilosofi nokulinganisa, ukuziphatha kocwaningo kuhilela ukwenza izinqumo ngalokho okufanele ukwenze nokuthi yini ongayenzi. Ngeshwa, lezi zinqumo ngokuvamile kufanele zenziwe ngokusekelwe kolwazi olungaphelele. Isibonelo, uma uklama i-Encore, abacwaningi kungenzeka ukuthi babefisa ukwazi ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi kungabangela ukuthi umuntu avakashelwe amaphoyisa. Noma, uma kudala ukuphikisana komzwelo, abacwaningi kungenzeka ukuthi babefisa ukwazi ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi kungabangela ukucindezeleka kwabanye ababambiqhaza. Lezi zimo cishe zaziphansi kakhulu, kodwa zaziwa ngaphambi kokuba ucwaningo lwenzeke. Futhi, ngenxa yokuthi ayikho imininingwane elandelwa umphakathi esidlangalaleni mayelana nezenzakalo ezimbi, la ma-probability namanje awaziwa.

Ukungaqiniseki akuyona into ehlukile ekucwaningweni kwezenhlalakahle eminyakeni yobudala. Lapho umbiko weBelmont uchaza ukuhlolwa okuhlelekile kwezingozi nezinzuzo, kwacaca ukuthi lokhu kuzoba nzima ukulinganisa kahle. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kungaqiniseki kunzima kakhulu eminyakeni yobudala, ngokwengxenye ngoba sinokuhlangenwe nakho okuncane nalolu hlobo locwaningo futhi yingxenye ngenxa yezici zocwaningo ngokwayo.

Njengoba kunikezwe lokhu okungaqiniseki, abanye abantu babonakala bekhuthaza okuthile "okuphephile kangcono kunokudabuka," okuyinto inguquko ehambisanayo yeNqubo Yokuqapha . Ngenkathi le ndlela ibonakala inengqondo-mhlawumbe ehlakaniphile-ingabangela ukulimala; kuyabisa ukucwaninga; futhi kubangele abantu bathathe umbono obanzi kakhulu wesimo (Sunstein 2005) . Ukuze siqonde izinkinga nge-Principal Precaution, ake sicabangele ukutheleleka ngokomzwelo. Ukuhlolwa kwakuhlelwe ukubandakanya abantu abangaba ngu-700,000, futhi ngokuqinisekile bekukhona ithuba lokuthi abantu abazohlolwa bazobe besengozini. Kodwa bekukhona nethuba lokuthi ukuhlolwa kungakhipha ulwazi oluzozuzisa kubasebenzisi be-Facebook nasemphakathini. Ngakho-ke, ngenkathi kuvumela ukuhlolwa kwakuyingozi (njengoba kukhulunywe kabanzi), ukuvimbela ukuhlolwa bekuyoba yingozi, ngoba ngabe ngabe kwakhiqize ulwazi olubalulekile. Yiqiniso, ukukhetha akukona okwenza ukuhlolwa njengoba kwenzekile futhi kungenzi ukuhlolwa; kwakukhona ukuguqulwa okuningi okungenzeka kudizayini okungenzeka ukuthi ukulethe ebhalansi ehlukile yokuziphatha. Kodwa-ke, ngesinye isikhathi, abacwaningi bazokwazi ukukhetha phakathi kokwenza isifundo nokungenzi, futhi kukhona izingozi kokubili kokusebenza nokungenzi lutho. Akulungile ukugxila kuphela ezingozini zesenzo. Ngokumane nje, akukho ndlela yokungena engozini.

Ukuhamba ngaphesheya kweNqubomgomo Yokuqapha, enye indlela ebalulekile yokucabanga ngokuthatha izinqumo ezinikezwe ukungaqiniseki kuyinkinga encane yokubeka ingozi . Lo mgomo uhlose ukubeka ingozi yocwaningo oluthile olubhekene nezingozi abahlanganyeli abazenzayo ekuphileni kwabo kwansuku zonke, njengokudlala ezemidlalo nokushayela izimoto (Wendler et al. 2005) . Le ndlela iyigugu ngoba ukuhlola ukuthi ngabe into ehlangabezana nengqinamba encane engozini ingcono kunokuhlola izinga langempela lezingozi. Isibonelo, Ngokwe-Contagion Emotional, ngaphambi kokuqala kokucwaninga, abacwaningi bangase bafanise okuqukethwe komzwelo wezindaba ze-News Feeds ekuhlolweni kwamanye ama-News Feeds ku-Facebook. Uma bebefana, abacwaningi bangase baphethe ngokuthi lo mzamo uhlangabezane nezinga eliphansi lokufaka ingozi (MN Meyer 2015) . Futhi bangenza lesi sinqumo ngisho noma bebengayazi izinga eliphelele lomngcipheko . Indlela efanayo ingase isetshenziswe ku-Encore. Okokuqala, Encore yaqala ukucela izicelo kumawebhusayithi aziwayo ukuthi azizwele, njengalawo amaqembu ezombangazwe avinjelwe emazweni anamazwe ahlaselayo. Ngenxa yalokho, kwakungeyona ingozi encane yabahlanganyeli emazweni athile. Kodwa-ke, inguqulo ebuyekeziwe ye-Encore-eyabangela kuphela izicelo ku-Twitter, Facebook, ne-YouTube-yayingengozi encane ngoba izicelo zalezo zingosi zivela ngesikhathi sokuphequlula kwewebhu evamile (Narayanan and Zevenbergen 2015) .

Umqondo wesibili obalulekile uma wenza izinqumo mayelana nezifundo ezinengozi engaziwa ukuhlaziywa kwamandla , okuvumela abacwaningi ukuthi balinganise usayizi wesampula bazodinga ukuthola ngokuthembeka umphumela wesayizi owanikwa (Cohen 1988) . Uma isifundo sakho singabonisa ukuthi abahlanganyeli bangabungozi-ngisho nengozini encane-khona-ke isimiso sosizo sikhombisa ukuthi kufanele ubeke inani elincane kakhulu lezingozi ezidingekayo ukuze ufinyelele imigomo yakho yocwaningo. (Cabanga ngesimiso sokunciphisa esahlukweni 4.) Ngisho noma abanye abacwaningi banesifiso sokwenza izifundo zabo zibe zinkulu ngangokunokwenzeka, ukuziphatha kocwaningo kubonisa ukuthi abacwaningi kufanele benze izifundo zabo zibe zincane ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuhlaziywa kwamandla akuyona into entsha, kodwa kukhona umehluko obalulekile phakathi kwendlela esetshenziswe ngayo esikhathini sobudala nokuthi kufanele isetshenziswe kanjani namuhla. Esikhathini sobudala, abacwaningi ngokuvamile benza ukuhlaziywa kwamandla ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ukutadisha kwabo kwakungelula kakhulu (okungukuthi, ngaphansi kwamandla). Kodwa-ke, manje abacwaningi kufanele benze ukuhlaziywa kwamandla ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ukutadisha kwabo akukakhulu kakhulu (okungukuthi, amandla angaphezulu).

Ukulinganiswa okuncane okungabungozi nokuhlaziywa kwamandla kukusiza ukuthi ucabangele futhi uhlele izifundo, kodwa akunikezi ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuthi abahlanganyeli bangase bazizwe kanjani ngokufunda kwakho nokuthi yiziphi izingozi abangase bazizwe ngokuhlanganyela kulo. Enye indlela yokubhekana nokungaqiniseki ukuqoqa ulwazi oluthe xaxa, okuholela ekuhlolweni kokuziphatha ngendlela efanele nokuhlolwa.

In zesimilo impendulo survey, abacwaningi, zinikeza incazelo emfushane ehlongozwayo yocwaningo bese ubuza imibuzo emibili:

• (Q1) "Uma umuntu onendaba ngamashumi umhlanganyeli ukhetho for lesi silingo, ubungeke uthande lowo muntu ukuba zifakwe njengoba umhlanganyeli?": [Yebo], [anginazo izintandokazi], [Akukho]
• (Q2) "Uyakholwa ukuthi abacwaningi kufanele bavunyelwe ukuqhubeka lesi silingo? ': [Yebo], [Yebo, kodwa ngokuqapha], [Angiqiniseki], [Akukho]

Ukulandela umbuzo ngamunye, abaphenduli banikezwa isikhala lapho bengachaza khona impendulo yabo. Okokugcina, abaphenduli-abangaba ngabathintekayo noma abantu abaqashiwe emakethe yemisebenzi ye-microtask (isib. I-Amazon Mechanical Turk) -bheka imibuzo ethile eyisisekelo yabantu (Schechter and Bravo-Lillo 2014) .

Ukuhlola okuziphatha ngokwemvelo kunemisebenzi emithathu engiyitholayo ngokukhethekile. Okokuqala, kwenzeka ngaphambi kokuba kuqhutshwe isifundo, ngakho-ke bangakwazi ukuvimbela izinkinga ngaphambi kokuba ucwaningo luqale (ngokungafani nezindlela eziqapha ukusabela okubi). Okwesibili, abaphenduli ngokuhlolwa kwezenzo zokuziphatha ngokwemvelo ngokuvamile akubona abacwaningi, ngakho-ke lokhu kusiza abacwaningi ukuthi babone ukutadisha kwabo ngombono womphakathi. Okokugcina, ukuhlolwa kwezenzo zokuziphatha kwenza abacwaningi bakwazi ukufaka izinguqulo eziningi zephrojekthi yokucwaninga ukuze bahlole ukulinganisela okuhlelekile kokuhlelwa kwezinguquko ezihlukahlukene zephrojekthi efanayo. Kodwa-ke, ukulinganiselwa okukodwa kokuhlola okuziphatha ngokuziphatha ukuthi akucaci ukuthi unquma kanjani phakathi kwemiklamo eyahlukene yocwaningo eyanikezwa imiphumela yocwaningo. Kodwa, naphezu kwalokhu okulinganiselwe, ukuhlolwa kwezenzo zokuziphatha kuyabonakala kuyasiza; Eqinisweni, Schechter and Bravo-Lillo (2014) babika ukushiya isifundo esihleliwe ekuphenduleni ukukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe ngabahlanganyeli ekuhlolisweni kwezenzo zokuziphatha.

Ngenkathi ukuhlolwa kwezenzo zokuziphatha kungasiza ekuhloleni ukusabela ekucwaningweni okuhlongozwayo, abakwazi ukulinganisa amathuba noma ubunzima bezehlakalo ezimbi. Enye indlela abacwaningi bezokwelapha ababhekana ngayo nokungaqiniseki ezindaweni ezisengozini kakhulu ukwenza ukuhlolwa okuhleliwe -yindlela engase ibe usizo kwezinye ucwaningo lwezenhlalakahle. Lapho uhlola ukusebenza komuthi omusha, abacwaningi abasheshe bafinyelele esivivinyweni esikhulu somtholampilo. Kunalokho, bagijima izinhlobo ezimbili zezifundo kuqala. Okokuqala, esigabeni sokuqala Icala, abacwaningi ikakhulukazi bagxila ekutholeni umthamo ophephile, futhi lezi zifundo zihilela inani elincane labantu. Uma ngabe umthamo ophephile usuwenziwe, ukuhlolwa kwesigaba II kuhlola ukusebenza komuthi; okungukuthi, ikhono layo lokusebenza esimweni esihle kakhulu (Singal, Higgins, and Waljee 2014) . Kuphela emva kokufunda kwesigaba I no-II sekuphelile yisidakamizwa esisha esivunyelwe ukuba sihlolwe esilingo esikhulu esilawulwa ngokungahleliwe. Nakuba isakhiwo esiqondile sezilingo ezihleliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuthuthukiswa kwezidakamizwa ezintsha kungase kungabi kahle ngokucwaninga kwezenhlalakahle, lapho bebhekene nokungaqiniseki, abacwaningi bangakwazi ukuqhuba izifundo ezincane ezigxile ngokucacile ekuphepheni nasekusebenzeni. Isibonelo, nge-Encore, ungacabanga ukuthi abacwaningi baqala ngabahlanganyeli emazweni anombuso oqinile.

Ngokubambisana, lezi zindlela ezine-izinga eliphansi lokungena engozini, ukuhlaziywa kwamandla, ukuhlolwa kwezenzo zokuziphatha, kanye nokuhlolwa okuhleliwe-kungakusiza uqhubeke ngendlela eqondakalayo, ngisho nalapho ubhekene nokungaqiniseki. Ukungaqiniseki akudingi ukuholela ekusebenziseni.