### 4.6.1 Pangani zero deta variable mtengo

Chinsinsi choyesa kuyesa kwakukulu ndikuyendetsa mtengo wanu wosinthika mpaka zero. Njira zabwino zogwirira ntchitoyi ndizokhazikika ndikupanga zoyesera zokondweretsa.

Kuyesera kwa digito kungakhale ndi ndalama zosiyana kwambiri, ndipo izi zimathandiza ochita kafukufuku kuti ayese ziyeso zomwe sizingatheke m'mbuyomu. Njira imodzi yoganizira za kusiyana kumeneku ndikutulukira kuti mayeserowa ali ndi mitundu iwiri ya ndalamazo: ndalama zosasinthika ndi ndalama zosinthika. Ndalama zosasinthika zimakhala zosasinthika mosasamala chiwerengero cha ophunzira. Mwachitsanzo, mu kafukufuku wa labu, ndalama zowonongeka zingakhale zodula kubwereka malo ndi kugula zipinda. Kusiyana kwa ndalama , komano, kusintha malinga ndi chiwerengero cha ophunzira. Mwachitsanzo, mu kafukufuku wa labu, zotengera zosinthika zimabwera kuchokera kupira antchito ndi ophunzira. Kawirikawiri, kuyesera kwa analogi kumakhala kosavuta komanso ndalama zambiri, pamene kuyesera kwa digito kuli ndi ndalama zambiri komanso ndalama zochepa (Fanizo 4.19). Ngakhale kuyesera kwa digito kuli ndi ndalama zochepa, mungathe kupanga mwayi wambiri wosangalatsa pamene mukuyendetsa mtengo wosiyanasiyana mpaka ku zero.

Pali zigawo zikuluzikulu ziwiri za malipiro otsika mtengo kwa ogwira ntchito ndi malipiro kwa ophunzira-ndipo iliyonse mwa izi ikhoza kuyendetsedwa ku zero pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosiyana. Malipiro kwa ogwira ntchito amachokera kuntchito yomwe othandizizira kafukufuku amapezera ophunzira, kupereka mankhwala, ndi zotsatira zake. Mwachitsanzo, ntchito yamagetsi ya Schultz ndi anzake (2007) yogwiritsa ntchito magetsi inkafuna othandizira pafupipafupi kupita kunyumba iliyonse kuti apereke chithandizo ndikuwerenga mita ya magetsi (chithunzi 4.3). Zonsezi mwa othandizira afukufuku zimatanthauza kuti kuwonjezera nyumba yatsopano ku phunziro iyenera kuwonjezera pa mtengo. Kumbali ina, chifukwa cha ntchito ya digiti ya Restivo ndi van de Rijt (2012) potsatira mphotho pa olemba a Wikipedia, ochita kafukufuku amatha kuwonjezera owonjezera pa mtengo uliwonse. Njira yothetsera kuchepa kwa ndalama zolamulira ndikubwezeretsa ntchito yaumunthu (yomwe ndi yamtengo wapatali) ndi ntchito yamakompyuta (yomwe ili yotsika mtengo). Pafupifupi, mungadzifunse nokha: Kodi izi zingayendere pamene aliyense wa gulu langa lofufuza ndikugona? Ngati yankho ndilo, inde, mwachita ntchito yabwino yodzipanga.

Mtundu wachiwiri wa mtengo wosinthika ndi malipiro kwa ophunzira. Ofufuza ena amagwiritsa ntchito Amazon Mechanical Turk ndi malo ena ogulitsa ntchito pa intaneti kuti achepetse malipiro omwe amafunika kuwathandiza. Poyendetsa galimoto mosiyanasiyana, zimakhala zosiyana. Kwa nthawi yaitali, ofufuza apanga mayesero omwe ali osangalatsa kwambiri omwe ayenera kulipira anthu kuti agwire nawo mbali. Koma bwanji ngati mutatha kupanga kuyesa kumene anthu akufuna? Izi zingawoneke bwino, koma ndikupatsani chitsanzo pansipa kuchokera kuntchito yanga, ndipo pali zitsanzo zambiri mu tebulo 4.4. Dziwani kuti lingaliro lopanga zojambula zosangalatsa likugwirizana ndi mitu ina mu chaputala 3 ponena za kukonza kafukufuku wosangalatsa komanso chaputala 5 chokhudzana ndi kugwirizanitsa kwa anthu ambiri. Kotero, ndikuganiza kuti wokondwera nawo-zomwe zingatchedwe kuti ndizochitikira-zidzakhala gawo lofunika kwambiri la kafukufuku m'zaka za digito.

Mndandanda 4.4: Zitsanzo za Zero Zero Zosintha Zomwe Zimapereka Mphoto kwa Ogwira Ntchito ndi Thandizo Labwino Kapena Zomwe Zimakondweretsa.
Malipiro Zolemba
Website ndi uthenga wathanzi Centola (2010)
Pulogalamu yophunzitsa Centola (2011)
Nyimbo zaulere Salganik, Dodds, and Watts (2006) ; Salganik and Watts (2008) ; Salganik and Watts (2009b)
Masewera osangalatsa Kohli et al. (2012)
Zotsatira za mafilimu Harper and Konstan (2015)

Ngati mukufuna kupanga zowonongeka ndi deta yosinthika, muyenera kuonetsetsa kuti zonse zakhala zokhazikika komanso kuti ophunzira sakufuna kulipira. Pofuna kusonyeza momwe izi zingatheke, ndifotokozera kufufuza kwanga pa kupambana ndi kulephera kwa mankhwala.

Kutchulidwa kwanga kunakhudzidwa ndi chikhalidwe chosokoneza cha kupambana kwa chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe. Nyimbo, nyimbo zogulitsa kwambiri, ndi mafilimu a blockbuster ndi ochuluka kwambiri, kupambana kwambiri. Chifukwa cha ichi, misika ya zinthu zimenezi nthawi zambiri imatchedwa "masewera otenga-onse". Komabe, panthawi yomweyi, nyimbo, bukhu, kapena filimu, yomwe idzapambana, idzakhala yosadabwitsa. Wolemba mafilimu William Goldman (1989) adalemba mwachidule kufufuza kwakukulu ponena kuti, ponena za kupambana, "palibe amene amadziwa kanthu." Kusadziwika kwa msika wogonjetsa kunandipangitsa kudzifunsa kuti zotsatira zake ndi zotani zapamwamba ndi kuchuluka kwa mwayi. Kapena, kufotokozera mosiyana, ngati tikhoza kulenga zofanana ndi dziko lonse ndikupanga zonsezi kusintha, kodi nyimbo zomwezo zidzatchuka m'mayiko onse? Ndipo, ngati sichoncho, ndi njira iti yomwe ingayambitse kusiyana kumeneku?

Pofuna kuyankha mafunso awa, ife-Peter Dodds, Duncan Watts (mlangizi wanga wotsutsa), ndipo ine-ndinayendetsa masewera ambiri pa intaneti. Makamaka, tinamanga webusaiti yotchedwa MusicLab komwe anthu amatha kupeza nyimbo zatsopano, ndipo tinkazigwiritsa ntchito pazowonongeka. Tinawatumizira ophunzira mwa kutsegula malonda pa webusaiti ya chidwi ya achinyamata (chifaniziro cha 4.20) komanso kudzera muzofalitsa. Ophunzirawo amafika pa webusaiti yathu atapereka chilolezo chodziwika bwino, anamaliza kafukufuku wam'mbuyomu, ndipo anapatsidwa mwadzidzidzi chimodzi mwa zinthu zomwe zimayesedwa-kudziimira paokha komanso kusagwirizana. Odziimira okhaokha, ophunzira adasankha zokhudzana ndi nyimbo zomwe zingamvetsere, kupatsidwa mayina a magulu ndi nyimbo. Pokhala akumvetsera nyimbo, ophunzira adafunsidwa kuti ayankhe izo pambuyo pake omwe anali ndi mwayi (koma osati udindo) kuti awombole nyimboyi. Mu chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe cha anthu, anthu omwe anali nawo anali ndi zofanana, kupatula kuti angathe kuona nthawi zambiri nyimbo iliyonse itasungidwa ndi ophunzira omwe apita kale. Kuwonjezera apo, anthu omwe ali ndi chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe cha anthu adasankhidwa kudziko limodzi mwa magawo asanu ndi atatu osiyana, omwe adasinthika okha (Fanizo 4.21). Pogwiritsa ntchito kapangidwe kameneka, tinayesa ziyeso ziwiri zofanana. Poyambirira, tinapereka nyimbo kwa ophunzira mu galasi losavomerezeka, lomwe linawapatsa chizindikiro chodziwika cha kutchuka. Muyeso yachiwiri, ife tinapereka nyimbo mu mndandanda wazinthu, zomwe zinapereka chizindikiro cholimba kwambiri cha kutchuka (chithunzi 4.22).

Tinaona kuti kutchuka kwa nyimbozi kunasiyana pakati pa maiko onse, kutanthauza kuti mwayi unathandiza kwambiri kuti zinthu ziziyenda bwino. Mwachitsanzo, mu dziko limodzi nyimbo "Lockdown" ndi 52Metro inadza nyimbo 1 pa 48, pamene dziko lina linabwera mu 40. Iyi inali nyimbo imodzimodziyo yolimbana ndi nyimbo zina zomwezo, koma mu dziko limodzi muli ndi mwayi komanso ena omwe sanatero. Kuwonjezera apo, poyerekeza zotsatira pamayesero awiriwa, tapeza kuti chikhalidwe cha anthu chimawonjezera chikhalidwe chogonjetsa cha misika iyi, yomwe mwina ikuwonetsera kufunikira kwa luso. Koma, kuyang'ana kudutsa mdzikoli (zomwe sizingakhoze kuchitidwa kunja kwa mtundu uwu wa kuyesera kwadziko lapansi zofanana), ife tapeza kuti chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe chinapangitsa kufunika kwa mwayi. Komanso, n'zosadabwitsa kuti inali nyimbo zapamwamba kwambiri pomwe bakha linali lofunika kwambiri (fanizo 4.23).

MusicLab idatha kuyendetsa mtengo wosiyana chifukwa cha njira yomwe idapangidwira. Choyamba, chirichonse chinali chosinthika kwathunthu kotero icho chinatha kuthawa pamene ine ndinali kugona. Chachiwiri, malipiro anali nyimbo zaulere, kotero panalibe malipiro okhudzidwa okhudzidwa nawo. Kugwiritsa ntchito nyimbo monga malipiro kumalongosola momwe nthawi zina pamakhala malonda pakati pa ndalama zokhazikika komanso zosasinthika. Kugwiritsa ntchito nyimbo kunachulukitsa ndalama zokhazikika chifukwa ndinayenera kupatula nthawi yopezera chilolezo kuchokera ku magulu ndikukonzekera malipoti kwa iwo pa zomwe ophunzirawo anachita ku nyimbo zawo. Koma pakadali pano, kuwonjezereka ndalama zowonjezera kuti kuchepetsa kusiyana kwa ndalama kunali chinthu choyenera kuchita; ndicho chimene chinatipangitsa ife kuyendetsa kuyesera kumene kunali pafupi kasanu ndi kawiri kuposa kuyesera kalasi yoyenera.

Kuwonjezera pamenepo, zojambula za MusicLab zimasonyeza kuti mtengo wosinthika sungakhale mapeto pawokha; M'malo mwake, ikhoza kukhala njira yothetsera mtundu watsopano wa kuyesera. Zindikirani kuti sitinagwiritse ntchito anthu onse kuti agwiritse ntchito kafukufuku kawirikawiri kawirikawiri. M'malo mwake, tachita chinachake chosiyana, chomwe mungaganize kuti mukusintha maganizo anu ku gawo lina la anthu (Hedström 2006) . M'malo momangoganizira zopanga zisankho, tinayesetsa kuyesa kutchuka, zotsatira zake zonse. Kusintha kumeneku ku zotsatira zapadera kunatanthauza kuti tidafunsapo anthu okwana 700 kuti apange mfundo imodzi ya deta (panali anthu 700 m'mayiko onse ofanana). Kuchuluka kumeneko kunangotheka chifukwa cha mtengo wapangidwe wa kuyesa. Kawirikawiri, ngati ochita kafukufuku akufuna kuwona momwe zotsatira zogwirira ntchito zimachokera pa zosankha zawo, mayesero a gulu monga MusicLab ndi okondweretsa kwambiri. M'mbuyomu, akhala akuganiza zovuta, koma mavutowa akufalikira chifukwa cha kuthekera kwa deta yosinthidwa.

Kuphatikiza pa kufotokoza phindu la deta yosinthidwa, mtengo wa MusicLab umasonyezanso zovuta ndi njira iyi: mkulu wokwanira mtengo. Kwa ine, ndinali ndi mwayi waukulu kuti ndikwanitse kugwira ntchito ndi wolemba webusaiti waluso dzina lake Peter Hausel kwa miyezi isanu ndi umodzi kuti amange kuyesera. Izi zinali zotheka chifukwa mlembi wanga, Duncan Watts, adalandira ndalama zambiri kuti athandizire kafukufuku wa mtundu umenewu. Technology yakhala ikuyenda bwino kuyambira pamene tinamanga MusicLab mu 2004 kotero kuti zingakhale zosavuta kumanga kuyesa monga chonchi tsopano. Koma, njira zothetsera ndalama zowonongeka zimatheka kotheratu kwa ofufuza omwe angathe kuphimba zomwezo.

Pomalizira, kuyesa kwa digito kungakhale ndi ndalama zosiyana kwambiri ndi zoyesera za analogi. Ngati mukufuna kuyesa kuyesa kwakukulu, muyenera kuyesetsa kuchepetsa ndalama zanu zosasinthika malinga ndi momwe mungathere komanso kuti mupite ku zero. Mungathe kuchita izi mwa kupanga zochita zanu zomwe mukuyesera (mwachitsanzo, kusintha nthawi ya anthu ndi nthawi ya kompyuta) ndikupanga zoyesayesa zomwe anthu akufuna kuti azipeze. Ofufuza omwe angapange mayesero ndi zinthu izi adzatha kuyesa mitundu yatsopano ya kuyesera komwe osati kotheka kale. Komabe, kuthekera koyesa zowonetsera ndalama zosiyana kungayambitse mafunso atsopano a chikhalidwe, mutu womwe tsopano ndikuwuzani.