## 3.3 The okwana zolakwa kafukufuku chimango

Total zolakwa kafukufuku zolakwa = chifaniziro + muyeso zolakwa.

Chiwerengero chomwe chimabwera kuchokera ku kafukufuku kafukufuku nthawi zambiri ndi opanda ungwiro. Izi zikutanthauza kuti kawirikawiri pali kusiyana pakati pa kafukufuku wopangidwa ndi kafukufuku wachitsanzo (mwachitsanzo, kuchuluka kwa msinkhu wa ophunzira kusukulu) ndi mtengo weniweni mwa anthu (mwachitsanzo, kutalika kwa msinkhu wa ophunzira kusukulu). Nthawi zina zolakwa zimenezi ndizochepa kwambiri moti sizothandiza, koma nthawi zina, mwatsoka, zimakhala zazikulu komanso zopindulitsa. Poyesera kumvetsetsa, kuyeza, ndi kuchepetsa zolakwa, ofufuza pang'onopang'ono adakhazikitsa chimodzi, chokhazikitsira cholingalira cha zolakwika zomwe zingabwere mufukufuku wafukufuku : chiwerengero chonse chofufuza zolakwika (Groves and Lyberg 2010) . Ngakhale kuti chitukuko cha mazikowa chinayamba m'zaka za m'ma 1940, ndikuganiza kuti zimatipatsa mfundo ziwiri zothandiza pakufufuza kafukufuku m'zaka zapitazo.

Choyamba, chiwerengero cha zolakwika zofufuzira chikufotokozera kuti pali mitundu iwiri ya zolakwika: chisankho ndi kusiyana . Zambiri, chisokonezo ndi zolakwika ndi zosiyana ndi zolakwika mosavuta. M'mawu ena, talingalirani zokhudzana ndi zikwi 1,000 za kafukufuku womwewo ndiyeno ndikuyang'ana kugawidwa kwa chiwerengero cha mayankho okwana 1,000. Zosangalatsa ndi kusiyana pakati pa tanthauzo la zowerengera izi ndi mtengo weniweni. Kusiyanasiyana ndiko kusiyana kwa chiwerengero ichi. Zonse zili zofanana, tikufuna ndondomeko yopanda chisankho ndi kusiyana kwakukulu. Mwamwayi, pamabvuto ambiri, osayanjanitsika, osagwirizana-siyana, omwe amachititsa ochita kafukufuku kukhala ovuta kuti asankhe momwe angagwirizanitse mavuto omwe amachitidwa ndi kusiyana ndi kusiyana. Mwachibadwa, ofufuza ena amasankha njira zopanda tsankho, koma maganizo amodzi omwe angakhale okhudzidwa nawo angakhale olakwitsa. Ngati cholinga chake ndikupanga chiwerengero chomwe chili pafupi kwambiri ndi choonadi (mwachitsanzo, ndi cholakwika chochepa kwambiri), ndiye kuti mungakhale bwino ndi ndondomeko yomwe ili ndi chiyanjano chochepa ndi kusiyana pang'ono kusiyana ndi osasamala koma ali ndi kusiyana kwakukulu (chithunzi 3.1). M'mawu ena, chiwerengero zolakwa kafukufuku chimango zikuwonetsa kuti pamene mumayesto njira kafukufuku kafukufuku, muyenera kuganizira onse kukondera ndi masiyanidwe.

Chidziwitso chachiwiri chachiwongosoledwe cha zolakwika zonse, zomwe zidzakonzekera chaputala chino, ndikuti pali magwero awiri a zolakwika: mavuto okhudzana ndi omwe mumayankhula ( maimidwe ) ndi mavuto okhudzana ndi zomwe mumaphunzira kuchokera kuzokambirana ( kuyeza) ). Mwachitsanzo, mukhoza kukhala ndi chidwi poyesa malingaliro okhudza ubisala pa intaneti pakati pa anthu akuluakulu aku France. Kupanga kulingalira uku kumafuna mitundu iwiri yosiyana. Choyamba, kuchokera ku mayankho omwe ofunsidwa amapereka, muyenera kutsanzira malingaliro awo payekha payekha (zomwe ziri vuto la kuyeza). Chachiwiri, kuchokera m'malingaliro osayenerera pakati pa anthu omwe akufunsidwa, muyenera kulepheretsa malingaliro pakati pa anthu onse (omwe ndi vuto la chiwonetsero). Zitsanzo zabwino ndi mafunso osanthula bwino zidzabweretsa zowerengera zoipa, monga momwe zingakhalire zovuta ndi mafunso abwino. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, kuyerekezera bwino kumafuna njira zoyenera zowunikira ndi kuyimilira. Kuchokera kumbuyoko, ine ndiwonanso m'mene akatswiri ofufuza aganizira za kuyimira ndi kuyeza mmbuyomo. Kenaka, ndikuwonetsani momwe malingaliro ndi kuyeza angathandizire kafukufuku wa zaka za digito.