Abelson, Hal, Ken Ledeen, and Harry Lewis. 2008. Blown to Bits: Your Life, Liberty, and Happiness After the Digital Explosion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

Acquisti, Alessandro, Laura Brandimarte, and George Loewenstein. 2015. “Privacy and Human Behavior in the Age of Information.” Science 347 (6221):509–14.

Adair, John G. 1984. “The Hawthorne Effect: A Reconsideration of the Methodological Artifact.” Journal of Applied Psychology 69 (2):334–45.

Adams, Nicholas. 2016. “A Crowd Content Analysis Assembly Line: Annotating Text Units of Analysis.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2808731. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Adams, Tim. 2012. “Galaxy Zoo and the New Dawn of Citizen Science.” The Guardian, March.

Adminstrative Data Taskforce. 2012. “The UK Administrative Data Research Network: Improving Access for Research and Policy.” Economic and Social Research Council.

Agarwal, Sameer, Yasutaka Furukawa, Noah Snavely, Ian Simon, Brian Curless, Steven M. Seitz, and Richard Szeliski. 2011. “Building Rome in a Day.” Communication of the ACM 54 (10):105–12.

Ahn, Luis von. 2005. “Human Computation.” Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University.

Ahn, Luis von, and Laura Dabbish. 2004. “Labeling Images with a Computer Game.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 319–26. CHI ’04. New York.

———. 2008. “Designing Games with a Purpose.” Communications of the ACM 51 (8):58–67.

Ahn, Luis von, Benjamin Maurer, Colin McMillen, David Abraham, and Manuel Blum. 2008. “reCAPTCHA: Human-Based Character Recognition via Web Security Measures.” Science 321 (5895):1465–8.

Ajunwa, Ifeoma, Kate Crawford, and Jason Schultz. 2016. “Limitless Worker Surveillance.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2746211. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Al-Ubaydli, Omar, and John A. List. 2013. “On the Generalizability of Experimental Results in Economics: With a Response to Camerer.” Working Paper 19666. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Alexander, Larry, and Michael Moore. 2015. “Deontological Ethics.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, Spring 2015.

Allcott, Hunt. 2011. “Social Norms and Energy Conservation.” Journal of Public Economics, Special Issue: The Role of Firms in Tax Systems, 95 (910):1082–95.

———. 2015. “Site Selection Bias in Program Evaluation.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 130 (3):1117–65.

Allcott, Hunt, and Todd Rogers. 2014. “The Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Experimental Evidence from Energy Conservation.” American Economic Review 104 (10):3003–37.

Alsan, Marcella, and Marianne Wanamaker. 2016. “Tuskegee and the Health of Black Men.” Working Paper 22323. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Althouse, Benjamin M., Yih Yng Ng, and Derek A. T. Cummings. 2011. “Prediction of Dengue Incidence Using Search Query Surveillance.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5 (8):e1258.

Althouse, Benjamin M., Samuel V. Scarpino, Lauren A. Meyers, John W. Ayers, Marisa Bargsten, Joan Baumbach, John S. Brownstein, et al. 2015. “Enhancing Disease Surveillance with Novel Data Streams: Challenges and Opportunities.” EPJ Data Science 4 (1):17.

Amorín, R., E. Pérez-Montero, J. M. Vílchez, and P. Papaderos. 2012. “The Star Formation History and Metal Content of the Green Peas. New Detailed GTC-OSIRIS Spectrphotometry of Three Galaxies.” The Astrophysical Journal 749 (2):185.

Andersen, Erik, Eleanor O’Rourke, Yun-En Liu, Rich Snider, Jeff Lowdermilk, David Truong, Seth Cooper, and Zoran Popovic. 2012. “The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity.” In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 59–68. CHI ’12. New York: ACM.

Anderson, Ashton, Sharad Goel, Gregory Huber, Neil Malhotra, and Duncan Watts. 2014. “Political Ideology and Racial Preferences in Online Dating.” Sociological Science, 28–40.

Anderson, Ashton, Sharad Goel, Gregory Huber, Neil Malhotra, and Duncan J. Watts. 2015. “Rejoinder to Lewis.” Sociological Science 2:32–35.

Anderson, Chris. 2008. “The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete.” Wired, June.

Anderson, Richard G. 2013. “Registration and Replication: A Comment.” Political Analysis 21 (1):38–39.

Angiuli, Olivia, Joe Blitzstein, and Jim Waldo. 2015. “How to de-Identify Your Data.” Communications of the ACM 58 (12):48–55.

Angotti, Nicole, and Christie Sennott. 2015. “Implementing Insider Ethnography: Lessons from the Public Conversations About HIV/AIDS Project in Rural South Africa.” Qualitative Research 15 (4):437–53.

Angrist, Joshua D. 1990. “Lifetime Earnings and the Vietnam Era Draft Lottery: Evidence from Social Security Administrative Records.” American Economic Review 80 (3):313–36.

Angrist, Joshua D., Guido W. Imbens, and Donald B. Rubin. 1996. “Identification of Causal Effects Using Instrumental Variables.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 91 (434):444–55.

Angrist, Joshua D., and Alan B. Krueger. 2001. “Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 15 (4):69–85.

Angrist, Joshua D., and Jörn-Steffen Pischke. 2009. Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist’s Companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Eitan Hersh. 2012. “Validation: What Big Data Reveal About Survey Misreporting and the Real Electorate.” Political Analysis 20 (4):437–59.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Douglas Rivers. 2013. “Cooperative Survey Research.” Annual Review of Political Science 16 (1):307–29.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Brian F. Schaffner. 2014. “Does Survey Mode Still Matter? Findings from a 2010 Multi-Mode Comparison.” Political Analysis 22 (3):285–303.

Antoun, Christopher, Chan Zhang, Frederick G. Conrad, and Michael F. Schober. 2015. “Comparisons of Online Recruitment Strategies for Convenience Samples Craigslist, Google AdWords, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk.” Field Methods, September.

APA Working Group. 2008. “Reporting Standards for Research in Psychology: Why Do We Need Them? What Might They Be?” American Psychologist 63 (9):839–51.

Aral, Sinan, Lev Muchnik, and Arun Sundararajan. 2009. “Distinguishing Influence-Based Contagion from Homophily-Driven Diffusion in Dynamic Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (51):21544–9.

Aral, Sinan, and Christos Nicolaides. 2017. “Exercise Contagion in a Global Social Network.” Nature Communications 8 (April):14753.

Aral, Sinan, and Dylan Walker. 2011. “Creating Social Contagion Through Viral Product Design: A Randomized Trial of Peer Influence in Networks.” Management Science 57 (9):1623–39.

Arceneaux, Kevin, Alan S. Gerber, and Donald P. Green. 2006. “Comparing Experimental and Matching Methods Using a Large-Scale Voter Mobilization Experiment.” Political Analysis 14 (1):37–62.

———. 2010. “A Cautionary Note on the Use of Matching to Estimate Causal Effects: An Empirical Example Comparing Matching Estimates to an Experimental Benchmark.” Sociological Methods & Research 39 (2):256–82.

Aronow, Peter M., and Allison Carnegie. 2013. “Beyond LATE: Estimation of the Average Treatment Effect with an Instrumental Variable.” Political Analysis 21 (4):492–506.

Aronow, Peter M., and Joel A. Middleton. 2013. “A Class of Unbiased Estimators of the Average Treatment Effect in Randomized Experiments.” Journal of Causal Inference 1 (1):135–54.

Aronson, Elliot, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, J. Merrill Carlsmith, and Marti Hope Gonzales. 1989. Methods of Research in Social Psychology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Arras, John D. 2008. “The Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital Case.” In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, edited by E. J. Emanuel, R. A. Crouch, C. Grady, R. K. Lie, F. G. Miller, and D. Wendler, 73–79. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arrow, Kenneth J., Robert Forsythe, Michael Gorham, Robert Hahn, Robin Hanson, John O. Ledyard, Saul Levmore, et al. 2008. “The Promise of Prediction Markets.” Science 320 (5878):877–78.

Asur, S., and B. A Huberman. 2010. “Predicting the Future with Social Media.” In 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT), 1:492–99.

Athey, Susan. 2017. “Beyond Prediction: Using Big Data for Policy Problems.” Science 355 (6324):483–85.

Athey, Susan, and Guido Imbens. 2016a. “Recursive Partitioning for Heterogeneous Causal Effects.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (27):7353–60.

———. 2016b. “The Econometrics of Randomized Experiments.” arXiv:1607.00698 [Stat], July.

Ayres, Ian, Mahzarin Banaji, and Christine Jolls. 2015. “Race Effects on eBay.” RAND Journal of Economics 46 (4):891–917.

Ayres, Ian, Sophie Raseman, and Alice Shih. 2013. “Evidence from Two Large Field Experiments That Peer Comparison Feedback Can Reduce Residential Energy Usage.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 29 (5):992–1022.

Back, Mitja D., Albrecht C. P. Küfner, and Boris Egloff. 2011. “Automatic or the People?: Anger on September 11, 2001, and Lessons Learned for the Analysis of Large Digital Data Sets.” Psychological Science 22 (6):837–38.

Back, Mitja D., Albrecht C.P. Küfner, and Boris Egloff. 2010. “The Emotional Timeline of September 11, 2001.” Psychological Science 21 (10):1417–9.

Baele, Stéphane J. 2013. “The Ethics of New Development Economics: Is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics Morally Wrong?” The Journal of Philosophical Economics 12 (1):2–42.

Bail, Christopher A. 2015. “Taming Big Data Using App Technology to Study Organizational Behavior on Social Media.” Sociological Methods & Research, May, 0049124115587825.

Bailey, Michael, David Dittrich, and Erin Kenneally. 2013. “Applying Ethical Principles to Information and Communications Technology Research: A Companion to the Menlo Report.” Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security.

Baker, Chris. 2008. “Trying to Design a Truly Entertaining Game Can Defeat Even a Certified Genius.” Wired, March.

Baker, Reg, J. Michael Brick, Nancy A. Bates, Mike Battaglia, Mick P. Couper, Jill A. Dever, Krista J. Gile, and Roger Tourangeau. 2013. “Summary Report of the AAPOR Task Force on Non-Probability Sampling.” Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology 1 (2):90–143.

Baker, Scott R., and Constantine Yannelis. 2015. “Income Changes and Consumption: Evidence from the 2013 Federal Government Shutdown.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2575461. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Bakshy, Eytan, and Dean Eckles. 2013. “Uncertainty in Online Experiments with Dependent Data: An Evaluation of Bootstrap Methods.” In Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 1303–11. KDD ’13. New York: ACM.

Bakshy, Eytan, Dean Eckles, Rong Yan, and Itamar Rosenn. 2012. “Social Influence in Social Advertising: Evidence from Field Experiments.” In Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 146–61. EC ’12. New York: ACM.

Bakshy, Eytan, Itamar Rosenn, Cameron Marlow, and Lada Adamic. 2012. “The Role of Social Networks in Information Diffusion.” In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on World Wide Web, 519–28. WWW ’12. New York: ACM.

Bamford, James. 2012. “The NSA Is Building the Country’s Biggest Spy Center (Watch What You Say).” Wired, March.

Bamford, Steven P, Robert C Nichol, Ivan K Baldry, Kate Land, Chris J Lintott, Kevin Schawinski, Anže Slosar, et al. 2009. “Galaxy Zoo: The Dependence of Morphology and Colour on Environment.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 393 (4):1324–52.

Bamman, David, Brendan O’Connor, and Noah Smith. 2012. “Censorship and Deletion Practices in Chinese Social Media.” First Monday 17 (3).

Banerjee, Abhijit V., and Esther Duflo. 2009. “The Experimental Approach to Development Economics.” Annual Review of Economics 1 (1):151–78.

Banerji, Manda, Ofer Lahav, Chris J. Lintott, Filipe B. Abdalla, Kevin Schawinski, Steven P. Bamford, Dan Andreescu, et al. 2010. “Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies via Machine Learning.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 406 (1):342–53.

Banfield, J. K., H. Andernach, A. D. Kapińska, L. Rudnick, M. J. Hardcastle, G. Cotter, S. Vaughan, et al. 2016. “Radio Galaxy Zoo: Discovery of a Poor Cluster Through a Giant Wide-Angle Tail Radio Galaxy.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 460 (3):2376–84.

Bankston, Kevin S., and Ashkan Soltani. 2013. “Tiny Constables and the Cost of Surveillance: Making Cents Out of United States V. Jones.” Yale L.J. Online 123:335.

Bańbura, Marta, Domenico Giannone, Michele Modugno, and Lucrezia Reichlin. 2013. “Now-Casting and the Real-Time Data Flow.” In Handbook of Economic Forecasting, edited by Graham Elliott and Allan Timmermann, 2, Part A:195–237. Handbook of Economic Forecasting. Elsevier.

Bapna, Ravi, Ramprasad Jui, Galit Shmueli, and Akmed Umyyarov. 2016. “One-Way Mirrors in Online Dating: A Randomized Field Experiment.” Management Science, February.

Barbaro, Michael, and Tom Zeller Jr. 2006. “A Face Is Exposed for AOL Searcher No. 4417749.” New York Times, August.

Bardsley, Nicolas, Robin Cubitt, Graham Loomes, Peter Moffatt, Chris Starmer, and Robert Sugden. 2009. Experimental Economics: Rethinking the Rules. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Barocas, Solon, and Andrew D. Selbst. 2016. “Big Data’s Disparate Impact.” California Law Review 104:671–732.

Baron, Reuben M., and David A. Kenny. 1986. “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (6):1173–82.

Batson, C. Daniel, Shannon Early, and Giovanni Salvarani. 1997. “Perspective Taking: Imagining How Another Feels Versus Imaging How You Would Feel.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23 (7):751–58.

Baumeister, Roy F., Kathleen D. Vohs, and David C. Funder. 2007. “Psychology as the Science of Self-Reports and Finger Movements: Whatever Happened to Actual Behavior?” Perspectives on Psychological Science 2 (4):396–403.

Baumrind, Diana. 1985. “Research Using Intentional Deception: Ethical Issues Revisited.” American Psychologist 40 (2):165–74.

Bean, Louis H. 1950. “Reviewed Work: The Pre-Election Polls of 1948. By Frederick Mosteller, Herbert Hyman, Philip J. McCarthy, Eli S. Marks, David B. Truman.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 45 (251):461–64.

Beasley, Asaf, and Winter Mason. 2015. “Emotional States Vs. Emotional Words in Social Media.” In Proceedings of the ACM Web Science Conference, 31:1–31:10. WebSci ’15. New York: ACM.

Beauchamp, Tom L. 2011. “The Belmont Report.” In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, edited by Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Christine C. Grady, Robert A. Crouch, Reidar K. Lie, Franklin G. Miller, and David D. Wendler. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Beauchamp, Tom L., and James F. Childress. 2012. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Beauchamp, Tom L., and Yashar Saghai. 2012. “The Historical Foundations of the Research-Practice Distinction in Bioethics.” Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (1):45–56.

Bederson, Benjamin B., and Alexander J. Quinn. 2011. “Web Workers Unite! Addressing Challenges of Online Laborers.” In CHI ’11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 97–106. CHI EA ’11. New York: ACM.

Beenen, Gerard, Kimberly Ling, Xiaoqing Wang, Klarissa Chang, Dan Frankowski, Paul Resnick, and Robert E. Kraut. 2004. “Using Social Psychology to Motivate Contributions to Online Communities.” In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 212–21. CSCW ’04. New York: ACM.

Bell, Gordon, and Jim Gemmell. 2009. Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything. New York: Dutton Adult.

Bell, Robert M., Yehuda Koren, and Chris Volinsky. 2010. “All Together Now: A Perspective on the Netflix Prize.” Chance 23 (1):24–24.

Belli, Robert F., Michael W. Traugott, Margaret Young, and Katherine A. McGonagle. 1999. “Reducing Vote Overreporting in Surveys: Social Desirability, Memory Failure, and Source Monitoring.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 63 (1):90–108.

Bello, G A, J Chipeta, and J Aberle-Grasse. 2006. “Assessment of Trends in Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Data: Is There Any Evidence of Declining HIV Prevalence or Incidence in Malawi?” Sexually Transmitted Infections 82 (Suppl 1):i9–i13.

Belmont Report. 1979. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Bengtsson, Linus, Xin Lu, Anna Thorson, Richard Garfield, and Johan von Schreeb. 2011. “Improved Response to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking Population Movements with Mobile Phone Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial Study in Haiti.” PLoS Medicine 8 (8):e1001083.

Bennett, James, and Stan Lanning. 2007. “The Netflix Prize.” In Proceedings of KDD Cup and Workshop, 2007:35.

Benoit, Kenneth, Drew Conway, Benjamin E. Lauderdale, Michael Laver, and Slava Mikhaylov. 2016. “Crowd-Sourced Text Analysis: Reproducible and Agile Production of Political Data.” American Political Science Review 110 (2):278–95.

Berent, Matthew K., Jon A. Krosnick, and Arthur Lupia. 2016. “Measuring Voter Registration and Turnout in Surveys Do Official Government Records Yield More Accurate Assessments?” Public Opinion Quarterly 80 (3):597–621.

Berinsky, Adam J., and Sara Chatfield. 2015. “An Empirical Justification for the Use of Draft Lottery Numbers as a Random Treatment in Political Science Research.” Political Analysis 23 (3):449–54.

Berinsky, Adam J., Gregory A. Huber, and Gabriel S. Lenz. 2012. “Evaluating Online Labor Markets for Experimental Research: Amazon.Com’s Mechanical Turk.” Political Analysis 20 (3):351–68.

Berinsky, Adam J., Michele F. Margolis, and Michael W. Sances. 2014. “Separating the Shirkers from the Workers? Making Sure Respondents Pay Attention on Self-Administered Surveys.” American Journal of Political Science 58 (3):739–53.

———. 2016. “Can We Turn Shirkers into Workers?” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 66:20–28.

Berk, Richard, Emil Pitkin, Lawrence Brown, Andreas Buja, Edward George, and Linda Zhao. 2013. “Covariance Adjustments for the Analysis of Randomized Field Experiments.” Evaluation Review 37 (3-4):170–96.

Bernedo, María, Paul J. Ferraro, and Michael Price. 2014. “The Persistent Impacts of Norm-Based Messaging and Their Implications for Water Conservation.” Journal of Consumer Policy 37 (3):437–52.

Beskow, Laura M., Lauren Dame, and E. Jane Costello. 2008. “Certificates of Confidentiality and the Compelled Disclosure of Research Data.” Science 322 (5904):1054–5.

Beskow, Laura M., Robert S. Sandler, and Morris Weinberger. 2006. “Research Recruitment Through US Central Cancer Registries: Balancing Privacy and Scientific Issues.” American Journal of Public Health 96 (11):1920–6.

Bestor, Daniel R., and Eric Hamp. 2010. “Peer to Patent: A Cure for Our Ailing Patent Examination System.” Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property 9 (2):16–28.

Bethlehem, Jelke. 1988. “Reduction of Nonresponse Bias Through Regression Estimation.” Journal of Official Statistics 4 (3):251–60.

———. 2010. “Selection Bias in Web Surveys.” International Statistical Review 78 (2):161–88.

Bethlehem, Jelke, Fannie Cobben, and Barry Schouten. 2011. Handbook of Nonresponse in Household Surveys. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit. 2005. “Citizen Scientists Supplement Work of Cornell Researchers.” Science 308 (5727):1402–3.

Blank, Steve. 2013. “Why the Lean Start-up Changes Everything.” Harvard Business Review.

Bloniarz, Adam, Hanzhong Liu, Cun-Hui Zhang, Jasjeet S. Sekhon, and Bin Yu. 2016. “Lasso Adjustments of Treatment Effect Estimates in Randomized Experiments.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (27):7383–90.

Blumenstock, Joshua E. 2014. “Calling for Better Measurement: Estimating an Individual’s Wealth and Well-Being from Mobile Phone Transaction Records.” In KDD-Data Science for Social Good 2014. New York.

Blumenstock, Joshua E., Gabriel Cadamuro, and Robert On. 2015. “Predicting Poverty and Wealth from Mobile Phone Metadata.” Science 350 (6264):1073–6.

Blumenstock, Joshua E., Niall C. Keleher, and Joseph Reisinger. 2016. “The Premise of Local Information: Building Reliable Economic Indicators from a Decentralized Network of Contributors.” In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, 61:1–61:5. ICTD ’16. New York: ACM.

Blumenstock, Joshua Evan, Marcel Fafchamps, and Nathan Eagle. 2011. “Risk and Reciprocity over the Mobile Phone Network: Evidence from Rwanda.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1958042. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Boase, Jeffrey, and Rich Ling. 2013. “Measuring Mobile Phone Use: Self-Report Versus Log Data.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 18 (4):508–19.

Boellstorff, Tom, Bonnie Nardi, Celia Pearce, T. L. Taylor, and George E. Marcus. 2012. Ethnography and Virtual Worlds: A Handbook of Method. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bohannon, John. 2009. “Gamers Unravel the Secret Life of Protein.” Wired, April.

———. 2016. “Mechanical Turk Upends Social Sciences.” Science 352 (6291):1263–4.

Bollen, Johan, Huina Mao, and Xiaojun Zeng. 2011. “Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market.” Journal of Computational Science 2 (1):1–8.

Bollen, Kenneth A. 2012. “Instrumental Variables in Sociology and the Social Sciences.” Annual Review of Sociology 38 (1):37–72.

Bond, Robert M., Christopher J. Fariss, Jason J. Jones, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow, Jaime E. Settle, and James H. Fowler. 2012. “A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization.” Nature 489 (7415):295–98.

Bonney, Rick, Jennifer L. Shirk, Tina B. Phillips, Andrea Wiggins, Heidi L. Ballard, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, and Julia K. Parrish. 2014. “Next Steps for Citizen Science.” Science 343 (6178):1436–7.

Bothwell, Laura E., Jeremy A. Greene, Scott H. Podolsky, and David S. Jones. 2016. “Assessing the Gold Standard Lessons from the History of RCTs.” New England Journal of Medicine 374 (22):2175–81.

Boudreau, Kevin J., and Karim R. Lakhani. 2013. “Using the Crowd as an Innovation Partner.” Harvard Business Review 91 (4):60–69, 140.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1987. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bowser, Anne, Andrea Wiggins, Lea Shanley, Jennifer Preece, and Sandra Henderson. 2014. “Sharing Data While Protecting Privacy in Citizen Science.” Interactions 21 (1):70–73.

Box, George E. P., J. Stuart Hunter, and William G. Hunter. 2005. Statistics for Experimenters: Design, Innovation, and Discovery. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.

boyd, danah. 2016. “Untangling Research and Practice: What Facebook’s ‘Emotional Contagion’ Study Teaches Us.” Research Ethics 12 (1):4–13.

boyd, danah, and Kate Crawford. 2012. “Critical Questions for Big Data.” Information, Communication & Society 15 (5):662–79.

Bradburn, Norman M., Seymour Sudman, and Brian Wansink. 2004. Asking Questions: The Definitive Guide to Questionnaire Design. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brandt, Allan M. 1978. “Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.” Hastings Center Report 8 (6):21–29.

Brayne, Sarah. 2014. “Surveillance and System Avoidance Criminal Justice Contact and Institutional Attachment.” American Sociological Review 79 (3):367–91.

Breiman, Leo. 2001. “Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures (with Comments and a Rejoinder by the Author).” Statistical Science 16 (3):199–231.

Brick, J. Michael. 2013. “Unit Nonresponse and Weighting Adjustments: A Critical Review.” Journal of Official Statistics 29 (3):329–53.

Brickell, Justin, and Vitaly Shmatikov. 2008. “The Cost of Privacy: Destruction of Data-Mining Utility in Anonymized Data Publishing.” In Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 70–78. KDD ’08.

Brownstein, John S., Christopher A. Cassa, and Kenneth D. Mandl. 2006. “No Place to Hide: Reverse Identification of Patients from Published Maps.” New England Journal of Medicine 355 (16):1741–2.

Bruckman, Amy. 2016a. “Do Researchers Need to Abide by Terms of Service (TOS)? An Answer.” The Next Bison: Social Computing and Culture.

———. 2016b. “More on TOS: Maybe Documenting Intent Is Not so Smart.” The Next Bison: Social Computing and Culture.

Bryson, Maurice C. 1976. “The Literary Digest Poll: Making of a Statistical Myth.” American Statistician 30 (4):184–85.

Budak, Ceren, Sharad Goel, and Justin M. Rao. 2016. “Fair and Balanced? Quantifying Media Bias Through Crowdsourced Content Analysis.” Public Opinion Quarterly 80 (S1):250–71.

Budak, Ceren, and Duncan Watts. 2015. “Dissecting the Spirit of Gezi: Influence Vs. Selection in the Occupy Gezi Movement.” Sociological Science 2:370–97.

Buelens, Bart, Piet Daas, Joep Burger, Marco Puts, and Jan van den Brakel. 2014. “Selectivity of Big Data.” Discussion Paper, Statistics Netherlands.

Bullock, John G., Donald P. Green, and Shang E. Ha. 2010. “Yes, but What’s the Mechanism? (Don’t Expect an Easy Answer).” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (4):550–58.

Burke, Moira, and Robert E. Kraut. 2014. “Growing Closer on Facebook: Changes in Tie Strength Through Social Network Site Use.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 4187–96. CHI ’14. New York: ACM.

Burnett, Sam, and Nick Feamster. 2015. “Encore: Lightweight Measurement of Web Censorship with Cross-Origin Requests.” In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Special Interest Group on Data Communication, 653–67. SIGCOMM ’15. London: ACM.

Buttice, Matthew K., and Benjamin Highton. 2013. “How Does Multilevel Regression and Poststratification Perform with Conventional National Surveys?” Political Analysis 21 (4):449–67.

Cahalan, Don. 1989. “Comment: The Digest Poll Rides Again!” The Public Opinion Quarterly 53 (1):129–33.

Callegaro, Mario, Reginald P. Baker, Jelke Bethlehem, Anja S. Göritz, Jon A. Krosnick, and Paul J. Lavrakas, eds. 2014. Online Panel Research: A Data Quality Perspective. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Calo, Ryan. 2011. “The Boundaries of Privacy Harm.” Indiana Law Journal 86:1131.

———. 2013. “Consumer Subject Review Boards: A Thought Experiment.” Stanford Law Review Online, 97–102.

Camerer, Colin. 2011. “The Promise and Success of Lab-Field Generalizability in Experimental Economics: A Critical Reply to Levitt and List.” SSRN eLibrary, December.

Camerer, Colin, Linda Babcock, George Loewenstein, and Richard Thaler. 1997. “Labor Supply of New York City Cabdrivers: One Day at a Time.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112 (2):407–41.

Campbell, Donald T. 1957. “Factors Relevant to the Validity of Experiments in Social Settings.” Psychological Bulletin 54 (4):297–312.

Canfield, Casey, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, and Gabrielle Wong-Parodi. 2016. “Perceptions of Electricity-Use Communications: Effects of Information, Format, and Individual Differences.” Journal of Risk Research, January, 1–22.

Card, David, Raj Chetty, Martin S. Feldstein, and Emmanuel Saez. 2010. “Expanding Access to Administrative Data for Research in the United States.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1888586. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Cardamone, Carolin, Kevin Schawinski, Marc Sarzi, Steven P Bamford, Nicola Bennert, C. M Urry, Chris Lintott, et al. 2009. “Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: Discovery of a Class of Compact Extremely Star-Forming Galaxies.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 399 (3):1191–1205.

Carneiro, Pedro Manuel, Sokbae Lee, and Daniel Wilhelm. 2016. “Optimal Data Collection for Randomized Control Trials.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2776913. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Carpenter, Kenneth J. 1988. The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carpenter, Patricia A., Marcel A. Just, and Peter Shell. 1990. “What One Intelligence Test Measures: A Theoretical Account of the Processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test.” Psychological Review 97 (3):404–31.

Carter, Stephen L. 1996. Integrity. New York: Harper Collins.

Casella, George. 2008. Statistical Design. New York: Springer.

Castillo, Carlos. 2016. Big Crisis Data: Social Media in Disasters and Time-Critical Situations. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cederman, Lars-Erik, and Nils B. Weidmann. 2017. “Predicting Armed Conflict: Time to Adjust Our Expectations?” Science 355 (6324):474–76.

Centola, D. 2010. “The Spread of Behavior in an Online Social Network Experiment.” Science 329 (5996):1194–7.

Centola, Damon. 2011. “An Experimental Study of Homophily in the Adoption of Health Behavior.” Science 334 (6060):1269–72.

Cerulo, Karen A. 2014. “Reassessing the Problem: Response to Jerolmack and Khan.” Sociological Methods & Research 43 (2):219–26.

Chaabane, Abdelberi, Terence Chen, Mathieu Cunche, Emiliano De Cristofaro, Arik Friedman, and Mohamed Ali Kaafar. 2014. “Censorship in the Wild: Analyzing Internet Filtering in Syria.” In Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference, 285–98. IMC ’14. New York: ACM.

Chakraborti, Sayan, Naveen Yadav, Carolin Cardamone, and Alak Ray. 2012. “Radio Detection of Green Peas: Implications for Magnetic Fields in Young Galaxies.” Astrophysical Journal Letters 746 (1):L6.

Chandler, Jesse, Gabriele Paolacci, and Pam Mueller. 2013. “Risks and Rewards of Crowdsourcing Marketplaces.” In Handbook of Human Computation, edited by Pietro Michelucci, 377–92. New York: Springer.

Chandler, Jesse, Gabriele Paolacci, Eyal Peer, Pam Mueller, and Kate A. Ratliff. 2015. “Using Nonnaive Participants Can Reduce Effect Sizes.” Psychological Science 26 (7):1131–9.

Charness, Gary, Uri Gneezy, and Michael A. Kuhn. 2012. “Experimental Methods: Between-Subject and Within-Subject Design.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 81 (1):1–8.

———. 2013. “Experimental Methods: Extra-Laboratory Experiments—Extending the Reach of Experimental Economics.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 91 (July):93–100.

Chen, Yan, F. Maxwell Harper, Joseph Konstan, and Sherry Xin Li. 2010. “Social Comparisons and Contributions to Online Communities: A Field Experiment on MovieLens.” American Economic Review 100 (4):1358–98.

Chen, Yan, and Joseph Konstan. 2015. “Online Field Experiments: A Selective Survey of Methods.” Journal of the Economic Science Association 1 (1):29–42.

Cheng, Justin, and Michael S. Bernstein. 2015. “Flock: Hybrid Crowd-Machine Learning Classifiers.” In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 600–611. CSCW ’15. New York: ACM.

Chetty, Raj, Nathaniel Hendren, Patrick Kline, and Emmanuel Saez. 2014. “Where Is the Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 129 (4):1553–1623.

Choi, Hyunyoung, and Hal Varian. 2012. “Predicting the Present with Google Trends.” Economic Record 88 (June):2–9.

Chu, Z., S. Gianvecchio, H. Wang, and S. Jajodia. 2012. “Detecting Automation of Twitter Accounts: Are You a Human, Bot, or Cyborg?” IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing 9 (6):811–24.

Cialdini, Robert B. 2009. “We Have to Break Up.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 4 (1):5–6.

Cialdini, Robert B., Carl A. Kallgren, and Raymond R. Reno. 1991. “A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: A Theoretical Refinement and Reevaluation of the Role of Norms in Human Behavior.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 24 (20):201–34.

Clark, Eric M., Chris A. Jones, Jake Ryland Williams, Allison N. Kurti, Mitchell Craig Norotsky, Christopher M. Danforth, and Peter Sheridan Dodds. 2016. “Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter.” PLoS ONE 11 (7):e0157304.

Clark, William Roberts, and Matt Golder. 2015. “Big Data, Causal Inference, and Formal Theory: Contradictory Trends in Political Science?” PS: Political Science & Politics 48 (1):65–70.

Clery, Daniel. 2011. “Galaxy Zoo Volunteers Share Pain and Glory of Research.” Science 333 (6039):173–75.

Cohen, Jacob. 1988. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Routledge.

———. 1992. “A Power Primer.” Psychological Bulletin 112 (1):155–59.

Cohn, Michael A., Matthias R. Mehl, and James W. Pennebaker. 2004. “Linguistic Markers of Psychological Change Surrounding September 11, 2001.” Psychological Science 15 (10):687–93.

Connelly, Roxanne, Christopher J. Playford, Vernon Gayle, and Chris Dibben. 2016. “The Role of Administrative Data in the Big Data Revolution in Social Science Research.” Social Science Research 59 (September):1–12.

Conrad, Frederick G., Jessica S. Broome, José R. Benkí, Frauke Kreuter, Robert M. Groves, David Vannette, and Colleen McClain. 2013. “Interviewer Speech and the Success of Survey Invitations.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 176 (1):191–210.

Conrad, Frederick G., and Michael F. Schober, eds. 2008. Envisioning the Survey Interview of the Future. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Converse, Jean M. 1987. Survey Research in the United States: Roots and Emergence 1890-1960. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cook, Samantha, Corrie Conrad, Ashley L. Fowlkes, and Matthew H. Mohebbi. 2011. “Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States During the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic.” PLoS ONE 6 (8):e23610.

Cooper, Seth, Firas Khatib, Adrien Treuille, Janos Barbero, Jeehyung Lee, Michael Beenen, Andrew Leaver-Fay, David Baker, Zoran Popovic, and Foldit players. 2010. “Predicting Protein Structures with a Multiplayer Online Game.” Nature 466 (7307):756–60.

Coppock, Alexander, and Donald P. Green. 2015. “Assessing the Correspondence Between Experimental Results Obtained in the Lab and Field: A Review of Recent Social Science Research.” Political Science Research and Methods 3 (1):113–31.

Coppock, Alexander, Andrew Guess, and John Ternovski. 2016. “When Treatments Are Tweets: A Network Mobilization Experiment over Twitter.” Political Behavior 38 (1):105–28.

Cornwell, Erin York. 2010. “Opening and Closing the Jury Room Door: A Sociohistorical Consideration of the 1955 Chicago Jury Project Scandal.” Justice System Journal 31 (1):49–73.

Correll, Shelley J., Stephen Benard, and In Paik. 2007. “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?” The American Journal of Sociology 112 (5):1297–1339.

Cosley, Dan, Dan Frankowski, Sara Kiesler, Loren Terveen, and John Riedl. 2005. “How Oversight Improves Member-Maintained Communities.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 11–20. CHI ’05. New York: ACM.

Costa, Dora L., and Matthew E. Kahn. 2013. “Energy Conservation Nudges and Environmentalist Ideology: Evidence from a Randomized Residential Electricity Field Experiment.” Journal of the European Economic Association 11 (3):680–702.

Couper, Mick P. 2011. “The Future of Modes of Data Collection.” Public Opinion Quarterly 75 (5):889–908.

Coviello, L., J.H. Fowler, and M. Franceschetti. 2014. “Words on the Web: Noninvasive Detection of Emotional Contagion in Online Social Networks.” Proceedings of the IEEE 102 (12):1911–21.

Coviello, Lorenzo, Yunkyu Sohn, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow, Massimo Franceschetti, Nicholas A. Christakis, and James H. Fowler. 2014. “Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks.” PLoS ONE 9 (3):e90315.

Cox, J., E. Y. Oh, B. Simmons, C. Lintott, K. Masters, A. Greenhill, G. Graham, and K. Holmes. 2015. “Defining and Measuring Success in Online Citizen Science: A Case Study of Zooniverse Projects.” Computing in Science Engineering 17 (4):28–41.

Crain, Rhiannon, Caren Cooper, and Janis L. Dickinson. 2014. “Citizen Science: A Tool for Integrating Studies of Human and Natural Systems.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39 (1):641–65.

Cranshaw, Justin, and Aniket Kittur. 2011. “The Polymath Project: Lessons from a Successful Online Collaboration in Mathematics.” In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1865–74. CHI ’11. New York: ACM.

Crawford, Kate. 2014. “The Test We Can and Should Run on Facebook.” Atlantic, July.

Cronbach, Lee J., and Paul E. Meehl. 1955. “Construct Validity in Psychological Tests.” Psychological Bulletin 52 (4):281–302.

Currie, Janet. 2013. “‘Big Data’ Versus ‘Big Brother’: On the Appropriate Use of Large-Scale Data Collections in Pediatrics.” Pediatrics 131 (Suppl. 2):S127–S132.

Dabalen, Andrew, Alvin Etang, Johannes Hoogeveen, Elvis Mushi, Youdi Schipper, and Johannes von Engelhardt. 2016. Mobile Phone Panel Surveys in Developing Countries: A Practical Guide for Microdata Collection. Directions in Development–Poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

Daries, Jon P., Justin Reich, Jim Waldo, Elise M. Young, Jonathan Whittinghill, Daniel Thomas Seaton, Andrew Dean Ho, and Isaac Chuang. 2014. “Privacy, Anonymity, and Big Data in the Social Sciences.” Queue 12 (7):30:30–30:41.

De Choudhury, Munmun, Winter A Mason, Jake M Hofman, and Duncan J Watts. 2010. “Inferring Relevant Social Networks from Interpersonal Communication.” In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on World Wide Web, 301–10. WWW ’10. Raleigh, NC: ACM.

De Mauro, Andrea, Marco Greco, Michele Grimaldi, Georgios Giannakopoulos, Damianos P. Sakas, and Daphne Kyriaki-Manessi. 2015. “What Is Big Data? A Consensual Definition and a Review of Key Research Topics.” AIP Conference Proceedings 1644 (1):97–104.

De Waal, Ton, Marco Puts, and Piet Daas. 2014. “Statistical Data Editing of Big Data.” Paper for the Royal Statistical Society.

Dean, J., and S. Ghemawat. 2008. “MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters.” Communications of the ACM 51 (1):107–13.

Dean, Jeffrey, and Sanjay Ghemawat. 2004. “MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters.” In Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Symposium on Opearting Systems Design & Implementation - Volume 6, 10–10. Berkeley, CA: USENIX Association.

Deaton, Angus. 2010. “Instruments, Randomization, and Learning About Development.” Journal of Economic Literature 48 (2):424–55.

Dehejia, Rajeev H., and Sadek Wahba. 1999. “Causal Effects in Nonexperimental Studies: Reevaluating the Evaluation of Training Programs.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 94 (448):1053–62.

Deng, Alex, Ya Xu, Ron Kohavi, and Toby Walker. 2013. “Improving the Sensitivity of Online Controlled Experiments by Utilizing Pre-Experiment Data.” In Proceedings of the Sixth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 123–32. WSDM ’13. New York: ACM.

Desai, Tanvi, Felix Ritchie, and Richard Welpton. 2016. “Five Safes: Designing Data Access for Research.” University of the West of England.

Desposato, Scott. 2016a. “Conclusion and Recommendations.” In Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals, edited by Scott Desposato, 267–89. New York: Routledge.

———. 2016b. Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals. New York: Routledge.

Diaz, Fernando, Michael Gamon, Jake M. Hofman, Emre Kiciman, and David Rothschild. 2016. “Online and Social Media Data as an Imperfect Continuous Panel Survey.” PLoS ONE 11 (1):e0145406.

Dickert, Neal, and Christine Grady. 2008. “Incentives for Research Participants.” In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, edited by E. J. Emanuel, R. A. Crouch, C. Grady, R. K. Lie, F. G. Miller, and D. Wendler, 386–97. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dickinson, Janis L., Benjamin Zuckerberg, and David N. Bonter. 2010. “Citizen Science as an Ecological Research Tool: Challenges and Benefits.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 41 (1):149–72.

Dieleman, Sander, Kyle W. Willett, and Joni Dambre. 2015. “Rotation-Invariant Convolutional Neural Networks for Galaxy Morphology Prediction.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 450 (2):1441–59.

Dillman, Don A. 2002. “Presidential Address: Navigating the Rapids of Change: Some Observations on Survey Methodology in the Early Twenty-First Century.” Public Opinion Quarterly 66 (3):473–94.

Dillman, Don A., Jolene D. Smyth, and Leah Melani Christian. 2008. Internet, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

———. 2014. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

DiMaggio, Paul, John Evans, and Bethany Bryson. 1996. “Have American’s Social Attitudes Become More Polarized?” American Journal of Sociology 102 (3):690–755.

Dittrich, D., K. Carpenter, and M. Karir. 2015. “The Internet Census 2012 Dataset: An Ethical Examination.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 34 (2):40–46.

Dittrich, David, Erin Kenneally, and others. 2011. “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research.” US Department of Homeland Security.

Doleac, Jennifer L., and Luke C.D. Stein. 2013. “The Visible Hand: Race and Online Market Outcomes.” Economic Journal 123 (572):F469–F492.

Doll, Richard, and A. Bradford Hill. 1954. “The Mortality of Doctors in Relation to Their Smoking Habits: A Preliminary Report.” British Medical Journal 1 (4877):1451–5.

Doll, Richard, Richard Peto, Jillian Boreham, and Isabelle Sutherland. 2004. “Mortality in Relation to Smoking: 50 Years’ Observations on Male British Doctors.” BMJ 328 (7455):1519.

Donoho, David. 2015. “50 Years of Data Science.” In Princeton NJ, Tukey Centennial Workshop.

Dreber, Anna, Thomas Pfeiffer, Johan Almenberg, Siri Isaksson, Brad Wilson, Yiling Chen, Brian A. Nosek, and Magnus Johannesson. 2015. “Using Prediction Markets to Estimate the Reproducibility of Scientific Research.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (50):15343–7.

Drenner, Sara, Max Harper, Dan Frankowski, John Riedl, and Loren Terveen. 2006. “Insert Movie Reference Here: A System to Bridge Conversation and Item-Oriented Web Sites.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 951–54. CHI ’06. New York: ACM.

Druckman, James N., Donald P. Green, James H. Kuklinski, and Arthur Lupia. 2006. “The Growth and Development of Experimental Research in Political Science.” American Political Science Review 100 (4):627–35.

Druckman, James N., and Arthur Lupia. 2012. “Experimenting with Politics.” Science 335 (6073):1177–9.

Dunn, Halbert L. 1946. “Record Linkage.” American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health 36 (12):1412–6.

Dunning, Thad. 2012. Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences: A Design-Based Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dwork, Cynthia. 2008. “Differential Privacy: A Survey of Results.” In International Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation, 1–19. Berlin: Springer.

Dwork, Cynthia, and Aaron Roth. 2014. “The Algorithmic Foundations of Differential Privacy.” Foundations and Trends in Theoretical Computer Science 9 (34):211–407.

Dwork, Cynthia, Adam D. Smith, Thomas Steinke, and Jonathan Ullman. 2017. “Hiding in Plain Sight: A Survey of Attacks on Private Data.” Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application 4 (1):61–84.

Dwyer, Patrick C., Alexander Maki, and Alexander J. Rothman. 2015. “Promoting Energy Conservation Behavior in Public Settings: The Influence of Social Norms and Personal Responsibility.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 41 (March):30–34.

Eckles, Dean, René F. Kizilcec, and Eytan Bakshy. 2016. “Estimating Peer Effects in Networks with Peer Encouragement Designs.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (27):7316–22.

Edelman, Benjamin G., Michael Luca, and Dan Svirsky. 2016. “Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2701902. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Efrati, Amir. 2016. “Facebook Struggles to Stop Decline in Original Sharing.” The Information.

Einav, Liran, Theresa Kuchler, Jonathan Levin, and Neel Sundaresan. 2015. “Assessing Sale Strategies in Online Markets Using Matched Listings.” American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 7 (2):215–47.

Einav, Liran, and Jonathan Levin. 2014. “Economics in the Age of Big Data.” Science 346 (6210):1243089.

Ekstrand, Michael D., Daniel Kluver, F. Maxwell Harper, and Joseph A. Konstan. 2015. “Letting Users Choose Recommender Algorithms: An Experimental Study.” In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, 11–18. RecSys ’15. New York, NY, USA: ACM.

Elmagarmid, Ahmed K., Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis, and Vassilios S. Verykios. 2007. “Duplicate Record Detection: A Survey.” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 19 (1):1–16.

Emanuel, Ezekiel J., Christine C. Grady, Robert A. Crouch, Reidar K. Lie, Franklin G. Miller, and David D. Wendler, eds. 2008. The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press.

Emanuel, Ezekiel J., David Wendler, and Christine Grady. 2000. “What Makes Clinical Research Ethical?” Journal of the American Medical Association 283 (20):2701–11.

Enserink, Martin, and Gilbert Chin. 2015. “The End of Privacy.” Science 347 (6221):490–91.

Epstein, Steven. 2009. Inclusion: The Politics of Difference in Medical Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Eriksson, Jakob, Lewis Girod, Bret Hull, Ryan Newton, Samuel Madden, and Hari Balakrishnan. 2008. “The Pothole Patrol: Using a Mobile Sensor Network for Road Surface Monitoring.” In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, 29–39. MobiSys ’08. New York: ACM.

Evans, Barbara J. 2011. “Much Ado About Data Ownership.” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 25.

———. 2013. “Why the Common Rule Is Hard to Amend.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2183701. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Eyal, Nir. 2012. “Informed Consent.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, Fall 2012.

Falk, Armin, and James J. Heckman. 2009. “Lab Experiments Are a Major Source of Knowledge in the Social Sciences.” Science 326 (5952):535–38.

Farber, Henry S. 2015. “Why You Can’t Find a Taxi in the Rain and Other Labor Supply Lessons from Cab Drivers.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 130 (4):1975–2026.

Fellegi, Ivan P., and Alan B. Sunter. 1969. “A Theory for Record Linkage.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 64 (328):1183–1210.

Felstiner, Alek. 2011. “Working the Crowd: Employment and Labor Law in the Crowdsourcing Industry.” Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 32 (1):143–203.

Ferrara, Emilio, Onur Varol, Clayton Davis, Filippo Menczer, and Alessandro Flammini. 2016. “The Rise of Social Bots.” Communication of the ACM 59 (7):96–104.

Ferraro, Paul J., Juan Jose Miranda, and Michael K. Price. 2011. “The Persistence of Treatment Effects with Norm-Based Policy Instruments: Evidence from a Randomized Environmental Policy Experiment.” American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings of the 123rd Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association) 101 (3):318–22.

Feuerverger, Andrey, Yu He, and Shashi Khatri. 2012. “Statistical Significance of the Netflix Challenge.” Statistical Science 27 (2):202–31.

Fienberg, Stephen E. 1971. “Randomization and Social Affairs: The 1970 Draft Lottery.” Science 171 (3968):255–61.

Fink, Daniel, Wesley M. Hochachka, Benjamin Zuckerberg, David W. Winkler, Ben Shaby, M. Arthur Munson, Giles Hooker, Mirek Riedewald, Daniel Sheldon, and Steve Kelling. 2010. “Spatiotemporal Exploratory Models for Broad-Scale Survey Data.” Ecological Applications 20 (8):2131–47.

Fink, Günther, Margaret McConnell, and Sebastian Vollmer. 2014. “Testing for Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in Experimental Data: False Discovery Risks and Correction Procedures.” Journal of Development Effectiveness 6 (1):44–57.

Finn, P., and M. Jakobsson. 2007. “Designing Ethical Phishing Experiments.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 26 (1):46–58.

Fischer, Claude S. 2011. Still Connected: Family and Friends in America Since 1970. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Fiske, Susan T., and Robert M. Hauser. 2014. “Protecting Human Research Participants in the Age of Big Data.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (38):13675–6.

Fitzpatrick, J. W., F. B. Gill, M. Powers, and K. V. Rosenberg. 2002. “Introducing eBird: The Union of Passion and Purpose.” North American Birds 56:11–13.

Fortson, Lucy, Karen Masters, Robert Nichol, Kirk Borne, Edd Edmondson, Chris Lintott, Jordan Raddick, Kevin Schawinski, and John Wallin. 2011. “Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science.” arXiv:1104.5513, April.

Foucault, Michel. 1995. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books.

Fox, John, and Sanford Weisberg. 2011. An R Companion to Applied Regression. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.

Frangakis, Constantine E., and Donald B. Rubin. 2002. “Principal Stratification in Causal Inference.” Biometrics 58 (1):21–29.

Frank, Robert H. 2016. Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Frank, Robert H., and Philip J. Cook. 1996. The Winner-Take-All Society: Why the Few at the Top Get so Much More Than the Rest of Us. Reprint ed. New York: Penguin Books.

Freedman, David A. 1991. “Statistical Models and Shoe Leather.” Sociological Methodology 21:291–313.

———. 2008. “On Regression Adjustments to Experimental Data.” Advances in Applied Mathematics 40 (2):180–93.

Freedman, David, Robert Pisani, and Roger Purves. 2007. Statistics. 4th ed. New York: W.W. Norton.

Frison, Lars, and Stuart J. Pocock. 1992. “Repeated Measures in Clinical Trials: Analysis Using Mean Summary Statistics and Its Implications for Design.” Statistics in Medicine 11 (13):1685–1704.

Galaxy Zoo. 2016. “Exclusive Interview with Our Recent Citizen Science Co-Authors.” Galaxy Zoo.

Garbarski, Dana, Nora Cate Schaeffer, and Jennifer Dykema. 2016. “Interviewing Practices, Conversational Practices, and Rapport Responsiveness and Engagement in the Standardized Survey Interview.” Sociological Methodology 46 (1):1–38.

Gardner, Howard. 2011. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Gayo-Avello, Daniel. 2011. “Don’t Turn Social Media into Another ’Literary Digest’ Poll.” Communication of the ACM 54 (10):121–28.

———. 2013. “A Meta-Analysis of State-of-the-Art Electoral Prediction from Twitter Data.” Social Science Computer Review 31 (6):649–79.

Gee, Laura K. 2015. “The More You Know: Information Effects in Job Application Rates by Gender in a Large Field Experiment.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2612979. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Geiger, R. Stuart. 2014. “Bots, Bespoke, Code and the Materiality of Software Platforms.” Information, Communication & Society 17 (3):342–56.

Gelman, Andrew. 2007. “Struggles with Survey Weighting and Regression Modeling.” Statistical Science 22 (2):153–64.

———. 2010. “63,000 Worth of Abusive Research ... or Just a Really Stupid Waste of Time?” Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science.

———. 2013. “Preregistration of Studies and Mock Reports.” Political Analysis 21 (1):40–41.

Gelman, Andrew, and John Carlin. 2014. “Beyond Power Calculations Assessing Type S (Sign) and Type M (Magnitude) Errors.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 9 (6):641–51.

Gelman, Andrew, and John B. Carlin. 2002. “Poststratification and Weighting Adjustments.” In Survey Nonresponse, edited by Robert M. Groves, Don A. Dillman, John L. Eltinge, and Roderick J.A. Little, 289–302. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Gerber, Alan S., Kevin Arceneaux, Cheryl Boudreau, Conor Dowling, and D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2015. “Reporting Balance Tables, Response Rates and Manipulation Checks in Experimental Research: A Reply from the Committee That Prepared the Reporting Guidelines.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 2 (2):216–29.

Gerber, Alan S., and Donald P. Green. 2000. “The Effects of Canvassing, Telephone Calls, and Direct Mail on Voter Turnout: A Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 94 (3):653–63.

———. 2005. “Correction to Gerber and Green (2000), Replication of Disputed Findings, and Reply to Imai (2005).” American Political Science Review 99 (2):301–13.

———. 2012. Field Experiments: Design, Analysis, and Interpretation. New York: W. W. Norton.

Gerber, Alan S., Donald P. Green, and Christopher W. Larimer. 2008. “Social Pressure and Voter Turnout: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 102 (1):33–48.

Gerber, Alan, Kevin Arceneaux, Cheryl Boudreau, Conor Dowling, Sunshine Hillygus, Thomas Palfrey, Daniel R. Biggers, and David J. Hendry. 2014. “Reporting Guidelines for Experimental Research: A Report from the Experimental Research Section Standards Committee.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 1 (1):81–98.

Gilbert, Sarah. 2015. “Participants in the Crowd: Deliberations on the Ethical Use of Crowdsourcing in Research.” In CSCW 15 Workshop on Ethics at the 2015 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work.

Gill, Michael, and Arthur Spirling. 2015. “Estimating the Severity of the WikiLeaks U.S. Diplomatic Cables Disclosure.” Political Analysis 23 (2):299–305.

Gillon, Raanan. 2015. “Defending the Four Principles Approach as a Good Basis for Good Medical Practice and Therefore for Good Medical Ethics.” Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):111–16.

Ginsberg, Jeremy, Matthew H. Mohebbi, Rajan S. Patel, Lynnette Brammer, Mark S. Smolinski, and Larry Brilliant. 2009. “Detecting Influenza Epidemics Using Search Engine Query Data.” Nature 457 (7232):1012–4.

Glaeser, Edward L., Andrew Hillis, Scott Duke Kominers, and Michael Luca. 2016. “Crowdsourcing City Government: Using Tournaments to Improve Inspection Accuracy.” Working Paper 22124. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Glaser, Barney, and Anselm Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

Gleick, James. 2011. The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon.

Glennerster, Rachel, and Kudzai Takavarasha. 2013. Running Randomized Evaluations: A Practical Guide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Goel, Sharad, Jake M. Hofman, Sébastien Lahaie, David M. Pennock, and Duncan J. Watts. 2010. “Predicting Consumer Behavior with Web Search.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (41):17486–90.

Goel, Sharad, Winter Mason, and Duncan J. Watts. 2010. “Real and Perceived Attitude Agreement in Social Networks.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99 (4):611–21.

Goel, Sharad, Adam Obeng, and David Rothschild. 2016. “Non-Representative Surveys: Fast, Cheap, and Mostly Accurate.” Working Paper.

Goldberg, Amir. 2015. “In Defense of Forensic Social Science.” Big Data & Society 2 (2).

Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. “Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength Across Diverse Cultures.” Science 333 (6051):1878–81.

———. 2014. “Digital Footprints: Opportunities and Challenges for Online Social Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 40 (1):129–52.

Goldman, William. 1989. Adventures in the Screen Trade: A Personal View of Hollywood and Screenwriting. Reissue ed. New York: Grand Central Publishing.

Goldstein, Daniel G., R. Preston McAfee, and Siddharth Suri. 2013. “The Cost of Annoying Ads.” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web, 459–70. WWW ’13. Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee.

Goldstein, Daniel G., Siddharth Suri, R. Preston McAfee, Matthew Ekstrand-Abueg, and Fernando Diaz. 2014. “The Economic and Cognitive Costs of Annoying Display Advertisements.” Journal of Marketing Research 51 (6):742–52.

Goldstone, Robert L., and Gary Lupyan. 2016. “Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.” Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (3):548–68.

Goldthorpe, John H. 1991. “The Uses of History in Sociology: Reflections on Some Recent Tendencies.” British Journal of Sociology 42 (2):211–30.

Goroff, Daniel L. 2015. “Balancing Privacy Versus Accuracy in Research Protocols.” Science 347 (6221):479–80.

Gowers, Timothy, and Michael Nielsen. 2009. “Massively Collaborative Mathematics.” Nature 461 (7266):879–81.

Gray, Mary L., Siddharth Suri, Syed Shoaib Ali, and Deepti Kulkarni. 2016. “The Crowd Is a Collaborative Network.” In Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 134–47. CSCW ’16. New York: ACM.

Grayson, Richard. 2016. “A Life in the Trenches? The Use of Operation War Diary and Crowdsourcing Methods to Provide an Understanding of the British Armys Day-to-Day Life on the Western Front.” British Journal for Military History 2 (2).

Green, Donald P., Brian R. Calfano, and Peter M. Aronow. 2014. “Field Experimental Designs for the Study of Media Effects.” Political Communication 31 (1):168–80.

Green, Donald P., and Alan S. Gerber. 2003. “The Underprovision of Experiments in Political Science.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 589 (1):94–112.

———. 2015. Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Green, Donald P., and Holger L. Kern. 2012. “Modeling Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in Survey Experiments with Bayesian Additive Regression Trees.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76 (3):491–511.

Greenwald, Anthony G. 1976. “Within-Subjects Designs: To Use or Not to Use?” Psychological Bulletin 83 (2):314–20.

Greenwood, Jeremy J. D. 2007. “Citizens, Science and Bird Conservation.” Journal of Ornithology 148 (S1):77–124.

Grimmelmann, James. 2015. “The Law and Ethics of Experiments on Social Media Users.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2604168. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Grimmer, Justin, Solomon Messing, and Sean J. Westwood. 2014. “Estimating Heterogeneous Treatment Effects and the Effects of Heterogeneous Treatments with Ensemble Methods.” Working paper, Stanford University. http://stanford. edu/\~{}jgrimmer/het.pdf.

Grimmer, Justin, and Brandon M. Stewart. 2013. “Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts.” Political Analysis 21 (3):267–97.

Groen, Jeffrey A. 2012. “Sources of Error in Survey and Administrative Data: The Importance of Reporting Procedures.” Journal of Official Statistics 28 (2).

Groves, Robert M. 2004. Survey Errors and Survey Costs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

———. 2006. “Nonresponse Rates and Nonresponse Bias in Household Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly 70 (5):646–75.

———. 2011. “Three Eras of Survey Research.” Public Opinion Quarterly 75 (5):861–71.

Groves, Robert M., Floyd J. Fowler Jr., Mick P. Couper, James M. Lepkowski, Eleanor Singer, and Roger Tourangeau. 2009. Survey Methodology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Groves, Robert M., and Robert Louis Kahn. 1979. Surveys by Telephone: A National Comparison with Personal Interviews. New York: Academic Press.

Groves, Robert M., and Lars Lyberg. 2010. “Total Survey Error: Past, Present, and Future.” Public Opinion Quarterly 74 (5):849–79.

Grusky, David B., Timothy M. Smeeding, and C. Matthew Snipp. 2015. “A New Infrastructure for Monitoring Social Mobility in the United States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 657 (1):63–82.

Gueron, Judith M. 2002. “The Politics of Random Assignment: Implementing Studies and Affecting Policy.” In Evidence Matters: Randomized Trials in Education Research, edited by Frederick F. Mosteller and Robert F. Boruch, 15–49. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Hafner, Katie. 2006. “Researchers Yearn to Use AOL Logs, but They Hesitate.” New York Times, August.

Halevy, Alon, Peter Norvig, and Fernando Pereira. 2009. “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data.” IEEE Intelligent Systems 24 (2):8–12.

Halpern, Scott D, Rachel Kohn, Aaron Dornbrand-Lo, Thomas Metkus, David A Asch, and Kevin G Volpp. 2011. “Lottery-Based Versus Fixed Incentives to Increase Clinicians’ Response to Surveys.” Health Services Research 46 (5):1663–74.

Hand, Eric. 2010. “Citizen Science: People Power.” Nature News 466 (7307):685–87.

Hanmer, Michael J., Antoine J. Banks, and Ismail K. White. 2014. “Experiments to Reduce the over-Reporting of Voting: A Pipeline to the Truth.” Political Analysis 22 (1):130–41.

Hansen, Ben B., and Jake Bowers. 2008. “Covariate Balance in Simple, Stratified and Clustered Comparative Studies.” Statistical Science 23 (2):219–36.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2015. “Is Bigger Always Better? Potential Biases of Big Data Derived from Social Network Sites.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 659 (1):63–76.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Christian Sandvig, eds. 2015. Digital Research Confidential: The Secrets of Studying Behavior Online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Harper, F. Maxwell, and Joseph A. Konstan. 2015. “The MovieLens Datasets: History and Context.” ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems 5 (4):19:1–19:19.

Harper, F. Maxwell, Shilad Sen, and Dan Frankowski. 2007. “Supporting Social Recommendations with Activity-Balanced Clustering.” In Proceedings of the 2007 ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, 165–68. RecSys ’07. New York: ACM.

Harrison, G. W, and J. A List. 2004. “Field Experiments.” Journal of Economic Literature 42 (4):1009–55.

Hart, Nicky. 1994. “John Goldthorpe and the Relics of Sociology.” The British Journal of Sociology 45 (1):21–30.

Hastie, Trevor, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome Friedman. 2009. The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction. 2nd ed. New York: Springer.

Hauge, Michelle V., Mark D. Stevenson, D. Kim Rossmo, and Steven C. Le Comber. 2016. “Tagging Banksy: Using Geographic Profiling to Investigate a Modern Art Mystery.” Journal of Spatial Science 61 (1):185–90.

Hauser, David J., and Norbert Schwarz. 2015a. “Attentive Turkers: MTurk Participants Perform Better on Online Attention Checks Than Do Subject Pool Participants.” Behavior Research Methods 48 (1):400–407.

———. 2015b. “Its a Trap! Instructional Manipulation Checks Prompt Systematic Thinking on Tricky Tasks.” SAGE Open 5 (2):2158244015584617.

Hausman, Jerry. 2012. “Contingent Valuation: From Dubious to Hopeless.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 26 (4):43–56.

Hawley, Steven A. 2012. “Abundances in Green Pea Star-Forming Galaxies.” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 124 (911):21–35.

Healy, Andrew, and Neil Malhotra. 2013. “Retrospective Voting Reconsidered.” Annual Review of Political Science 16 (1):285–306.

Healy, Kieran. 2015. “The Performativity of Networks.” European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie 56 (2):175–205.

Heckman, James J., and Jeffrey A. Smith. 1995. “Assessing the Case for Social Experiments.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (2):85–110.

Heckman, James J., and Sergio Urzúa. 2010. “Comparing IV with Structural Models: What Simple IV Can and Cannot Identify.” Journal of Econometrics 156 (1):27–37.

Hedström, Peter. 2006. “Experimental Macro Sociology: Predicting the Next Best Seller.” Science 311 (5762):786–87.

Hedström, Peter, and Petri Ylikoski. 2010. “Causal Mechanisms in the Social Sciences.” Annual Review of Sociology 36 (1):49–67.

Heller, Jean. 1972. “Syphilis Victims in U.S. Study Went Untreated for 40 Years.” New York Times, July, pp. 1 and 8.

Henrich, Joseph, Steven J. Heine, and Ara Norenzayan. 2010a. “The Weirdest People in the World?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):61–83.

———. 2010b. “Most People Are Not WEIRD.” Nature 466 (7302):29–29.

Hernandez, Daniela, and Deepa Seetharaman. 2016. “Facebook Offers Details on How It Handles Research.” Wall Street Journal, June.

Hernán, Miguel A., and James M. Robins. 2016. “Using Big Data to Emulate a Target Trial When a Randomized Trial Is Not Available.” American Journal of Epidemiology 183 (8):758–64.

Hersh, Eitan D. 2013. “Long-Term Effect of September 11 on the Political Behavior of Victims Families and Neighbors.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (52):20959–63.

Higgins, Michael J., Fredrik Sävje, and Jasjeet S. Sekhon. 2016. “Improving Massive Experiments with Threshold Blocking.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (27):7369–76.

Hilbert, Martin, and Priscila López. 2011. “The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information.” Science 332 (6025):60–65.

Ho, Daniel E., Kosuke Imai, Gary King, and Elizabeth A. Stuart. 2007. “Matching as Nonparametric Preprocessing for Reducing Model Dependence in Parametric Causal Inference.” Political Analysis 15 (3):199–236.

Hofman, Jake M., Amit Sharma, and Duncan J. Watts. 2017. “Prediction and Explanation in Social Systems.” Science 355 (6324):486–88.

Hogan, Bernie, and Brent Berry. 2011. “Racial and Ethnic Biases in Rental Housing: An Audit Study of Online Apartment Listings.” City & Community 10 (4):351–72.

Holland, Paul W. 1986. “Statistics and Causal Inference.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (396):945.

Holm, S. 1995. “Not Just Autonomy–the Principles of American Biomedical Ethics.” Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (6):332–38.

Holmes, David S. 1976a. “Debriefing After Psychological Experiments: I. Effectiveness of Postdeception Dehoaxing.” American Psychologist 31 (12):858–67.

———. 1976b. “Debriefing After Psychological Experiments: II. Effectiveness of Postexperimental Desensitizing.” American Psychologist 31 (12):868–75.

Holt, D., and T. M. F. Smith. 1979. “Post Stratification.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 142 (1):33–46.

Hong, Lu, and Scott E. Page. 2004. “Groups of Diverse Problem Solvers Can Outperform Groups of High-Ability Problem Solvers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (46):16385–9.

Hoonaard, Will C. van den. 2011. Seduction of Ethics: Transforming the Social Sciences. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hopkins, Daniel, and Gary King. 2010. “A Method of Automated Nonparametric Content Analysis for Social Science.” American Journal of Political Science 54 (1):229–47.

Horton, John J., David G. Rand, and Richard J. Zeckhauser. 2011. “The Online Laboratory: Conducting Experiments in a Real Labor Market.” Experimental Economics 14 (3):399–425.

Horton, John J., and Prasanna Tambe. 2015. “Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.” Big Data 3 (3):130–37.

Horton, John J., and Richard J. Zeckhauser. 2016. “The Causes of Peer Effects in Production: Evidence from a Series of Field Experiments.” Working Paper 22386. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Horvitz, D. G., and D. J. Thompson. 1952. “A Generalization of Sampling Without Replacement from a Finite Universe.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 47 (260):663–85.

Hout, Michael, and Thomas A. DiPrete. 2006. “What We Have Learned: RC28’s Contributions to Knowledge About Social Stratification.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 24 (1):1–20.

Howe, Jeff. 2009. Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Crown Business.

Howison, James, Andrea Wiggins, and Kevin Crowston. 2011. “Validity Issues in the Use of Social Network Analysis with Digital Trace Data.” Journal of the Association for Information Systems 12 (12).

Huber, Gregory A., Seth J. Hill, and Gabriel S. Lenz. 2012. “Sources of Bias in Retrospective Decision Making: Experimental Evidence on Voters Limitations in Controlling Incumbents.” American Political Science Review 106 (4):720–41.

Huber, Gregory A., and Celia Paris. 2013. “Assessing the Programmatic Equivalence Assumption in Question Wording Experiments Understanding Why Americans Like Assistance to the Poor More Than Welfare.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (1):385–97.

Huberman, Bernardo A. 2012. “Big Data Deserve a Bigger Audience.” Nature 482 (7385):308.

Huberty, Mark. 2015. “Can We Vote with Our Tweet? On the Perennial Difficulty of Election Forecasting with Social Media.” International Journal of Forecasting 31 (3):992–1007.

Hudson, Kathy L., and Francis S. Collins. 2015. “Bringing the Common Rule into the 21st Century.” New England Journal of Medicine 373 (24):2293–6.

Hulth, Anette, Gustaf Rydevik, and Annika Linde. 2009. “Web Queries as a Source for Syndromic Surveillance.” PLoS ONE 4 (2):e4378.

Humphreys, Macartan. 2015. “Reflections on the Ethics of Social Experimentation.” Journal of Globalization and Development 6 (1):87–112.

Humphreys, Macartan, Raul Sanchez de la Sierra, and Peter van der Windt. 2013. “Fishing, Commitment, and Communication: A Proposal for Comprehensive Nonbinding Research Registration.” Political Analysis 21 (1):1–20.

Humphreys, Macartan, and Jeremy M. Weinstein. 2009. “Field Experiments and the Political Economy of Development.” Annual Review of Political Science 12 (1):367–78.

Hunter, David, and Nicholas Evans. 2016. “Facebook Emotional Contagion Experiment Controversy.” Research Ethics 12 (1):2–3.

Hurlbert, Allen H., and Zhongfei Liang. 2012. “Spatiotemporal Variation in Avian Migration Phenology: Citizen Science Reveals Effects of Climate Change.” PLoS ONE 7 (2):e31662.

Hutton, Luke, and Tristan Henderson. 2015. “‘I Didn’t Sign up for This!’: Informed Consent in Social Network Research.” In Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media.

Igo, Sarah E. 2008. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Imai, Kosuke. 2005. “Do Get Out the Vote Calls Reduce Turnout? The Importance of Statistical Methods for Field Experiments.” American Political Science Review 99 (2):283–300.

Imai, Kosuke, Luke Keele, Dustin Tingley, and Teppei Yamamoto. 2011. “Unpacking the Black Box of Causality: Learning About Causal Mechanisms from Experimental and Observational Studies.” American Political Science Review 105 (4):765–89.

Imai, Kosuke, and Marc Ratkovic. 2013. “Estimating Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Randomized Program Evaluation.” Annals of Applied Statistics 7 (1):443–70.

Imai, Kosuke, Dustin Tingley, and Teppei Yamamoto. 2013. “Experimental Designs for Identifying Causal Mechanisms.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 176 (1):5–51.

Imai, Kosuke, and Teppei Yamamoto. 2013. “Identification and Sensitivity Analysis for Multiple Causal Mechanisms: Revisiting Evidence from Framing Experiments.” Political Analysis 21 (2):141–71.

Imbens, Guido W. 2010. “Better LATE Than Nothing: Some Comments on Deaton (2009) and Heckman and Urzua (2009).” Journal of Economic Literature 48 (2):399–423.

Imbens, Guido W., and Paul R. Rosenbaum. 2005. “Robust, Accurate Confidence Intervals with a Weak Instrument: Quarter of Birth and Education.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 168 (1):109–26.

Imbens, Guido W., and Donald B. Rubin. 2015. Causal Inference in Statistics, Social, and Biomedical Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering. 2009. On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Issenberg, Sasha. 2012. The Victory Lab: The Secret Science of Winning Campaigns. New York: Broadway Books.

Izotov, Yuri I., Natalia G. Guseva, and Trinh X. Thuan. 2011. “Green Pea Galaxies and Cohorts: Luminous Compact Emission-Line Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.” Astrophysical Journal 728 (2):161.

Jackman, Molly, and Lauri Kanerva. 2016. “Evolving the IRB: Building Robust Review for Industry Research.” Washington and Lee Law Review Online 72 (3):442.

Jackson, Michelle, and D. R. Cox. 2013. “The Principles of Experimental Design and Their Application in Sociology.” Annual Review of Sociology 39 (1):27–49.

Jagatic, Tom N., Nathaniel A. Johnson, Markus Jakobsson, and Filippo Menczer. 2007. “Social Phishing.” Communications of the ACM 50 (10):94–100.

Jakobsson, Markus, and Jacob Ratkiewicz. 2006. “Designing Ethical Phishing Experiments: A Study of (ROT13) rOnl Query Features.” In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on World Wide Web, 513–22. WWW ’06. New York: ACM.

James, Gareth, Daniela Witten, Trevor Hastie, and Robert Tibshirani. 2013. An Introduction to Statistical Learning. New York: Springer.

Japec, Lilli, Frauke Kreuter, Marcus Berg, Paul Biemer, Paul Decker, Cliff Lampe, Julia Lane, Cathy O’Neil, and Abe Usher. 2015. “Big Data in Survey Research AAPOR Task Force Report.” Public Opinion Quarterly 79 (4):839–80.

Jarmin, Ron S., and Amy B. O’Hara. 2016. “Big Data and the Transformation of Public Policy Analysis.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35 (3):715–21.

Jensen, David D., Andrew S. Fast, Brian J. Taylor, and Marc E. Maier. 2008. “Automatic Identification of Quasi-Experimental Designs for Discovering Causal Knowledge.” In Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 372–80. KDD ’08. New York: ACM.

Jensen, Robert. 2007. “The Digital Provide: Information (Technology), Market Performance, and Welfare in the South Indian Fisheries Sector.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (3):879–924.

Jerit, Jennifer, Jason Barabas, and Scott Clifford. 2013. “Comparing Contemporaneous Laboratory and Field Experiments on Media Effects.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (1):256–82.

Jerolmack, Colin, and Shamus Khan. 2014. “Talk Is Cheap Ethnography and the Attitudinal Fallacy.” Sociological Methods & Research 43 (2):178–209.

Jones, Ben, and Nick Feamster. 2015. “Can Censorship Measurements Be Safe(R)?” In Proceedings of the 14th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 1:1–1:7. HotNets-XIV. New York: ACM.

Jones, Damon. 2015. “The Economics of Exclusion Restrictions in IV Models.” Working Paper 21391. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jones, James H. 1993. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, New and Expanded Edition. New York: Free Press.

———. 2011. “The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.” In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, edited by Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Christine C. Grady, Robert A. Crouch, Reidar K. Lie, Franklin G. Miller, and David D. Wendler. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, Jason J., Robert M. Bond, Eytan Bakshy, Dean Eckles, and James H. Fowler. 2017. “Social Influence and Political Mobilization: Further Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election.” PLoS ONE 12 (4):e0173851.

Jones, Jason J., Robert M. Bond, Christopher J. Fariss, Jaime E. Settle, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow, and James H. Fowler. 2013. “Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure.” PLOS ONE 8 (2):e55760.

Jordan, Jack. 2010. “Hedge Fund Will Track Twitter to Predict Stock Moves.”

Judson, D. H. 2007. “Information Integration for Constructing Social Statistics: History, Theory and Ideas Towards a Research Programme.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 170 (2):483–501.

Jungherr, Andreas. 2013. “Tweets and Votes, a Special Relationship: The 2009 Federal Election in Germany.” In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Politics, Elections and Data, 5–14. PLEAD ’13. New York: ACM.

———. 2015. Analyzing Political Communication with Digital Trace Data. Contributions to Political Science. Cham: Springer.

Jungherr, Andreas, Pascal Jürgens, and Harald Schoen. 2012. “Why the Pirate Party Won the German Election of 2009 or the Trouble with Predictions: A Response to Tumasjan, A., Sprenger, T. O., Sander, P. G., & Welpe, I. M. Predicting Elections with Twitter: What 140 Characters Reveal About Political Sentiment.” Social Science Computer Review 30 (2):229–34.

Kahn, Jeffrey P., Effy Vayena, and Anna C. Mastroianni. 2014. “Opinion: Learning as We Go: Lessons from the Publication of Facebook’s Social-Computing Research.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (38):13677–9.

Kaler, Amy. 2004. “AIDS-Talk in Everyday Life: The Presence of HIV/AIDS in Men’s Informal Conversation in Southern Malawi.” Social Science & Medicine 59 (2):285–97.

Kaler, Amy, Susan Cotts Watkins, and Nicole Angotti. 2015. “Making Meaning in the Time of AIDS: Longitudinal Narratives from the Malawi Journals Project.” African Journal of AIDS Research 14 (4):303–14.

Kalton, Graham, and Ismael Flores-Cervantes. 2003. “Weighting Methods.” Journal of Official Statistics 19 (2):81–98.

Kalton, Graham, and Howard Schuman. 1982. “The Effect of the Question on Survey Responses: A Review.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 145 (1):42–73.

Katz, Jay, Alexander Morgan Capron, and Eleanor Swift Glass. 1972. Experimentation with Human Beings: The Authority of the Investigator, Subject, Professions, and State in the Human Experimentation Process. Russell Sage Foundation.

Keating, Conrad. 2014. Smoking Kills: The Revolutionary Life of Richard Doll. Oxford: Signal Books.

Keeter, Scott, Courtney Kennedy, Michael Dimock, Jonathan Best, and Peyton Craighill. 2006. “Gauging the Impact of Growing Nonresponse on Estimates from a National RDD Telephone Survey.” Public Opinion Quarterly 70 (5):759–79.

Keeter, Scott, Carolyn Miller, Andrew Kohut, Robert M. Groves, and Stanley Presser. 2000. “Consequences of Reducing Nonresponse in a National Telephone Survey.” Public Opinion Quarterly 64 (2):125–48.

Keiding, Niels, and Thomas A. Louis. 2016. “Perils and Potentials of Self-Selected Entry to Epidemiological Studies and Surveys.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 179 (2):319–76.

Kelling, Steve, Daniel Fink, Frank A. La Sorte, Alison Johnston, Nicholas E. Bruns, and Wesley M. Hochachka. 2015. “Taking a Big Data Approach to Data Quality in a Citizen Science Project.” Ambio 44 (Suppl 4):601–11.

Kelling, Steve, Jeff Gerbracht, Daniel Fink, Carl Lagoze, Weng-Keen Wong, Jun Yu, Theodoros Damoulas, and Carla Gomes. 2012. “eBird: A Human/Computer Learning Network to Improve Biodiversity Conservation and Research.” AI Magazine 34 (1):10.

Kelling, Steve, Alison Johnston, Wesley M. Hochachka, Marshall Iliff, Daniel Fink, Jeff Gerbracht, Carl Lagoze, et al. 2015. “Can Observation Skills of Citizen Scientists Be Estimated Using Species Accumulation Curves?” PLoS ONE 10 (10):e0139600.

Kent, DM, and RA Hayward. 2007. “Limitations of Applying Summary Results of Clinical Trials to Individual Patients: The Need for Risk Stratification.” JAMA 298 (10):1209–12.

Khan, Shamus, and Dana R. Fisher. 2013. The Practice of Research: How Social Scientists Answer Their Questions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Khatib, Firas, Seth Cooper, Michael D. Tyka, Kefan Xu, Ilya Makedon, Zoran Popović, David Baker, and Foldit Players. 2011. “Algorithm Discovery by Protein Folding Game Players.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (47):18949–53.

Kifner, John. 2001. “Scholar Sets Off Gastronomic False Alarm.” The New York Times, September.

King, Gary, Emmanuela Gakidou, Nirmala Ravishankar, Ryan T. Moore, Jason Lakin, Manett Vargas, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila, Mauricio Hernández Ávila, and Héctor Hernández Llamas. 2007. “A ‘Politically Robust’ Experimental Design for Public Policy Evaluation, with Application to the Mexican Universal Health Insurance Program.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 26 (3):479–506.

King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

King, Gary, and Ying Lu. 2008. “Verbal Autopsy Methods with Multiple Causes of Death.” Statistical Science 23 (1):78–91.

King, Gary, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Roberts. 2013. “How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression.” American Political Science Review 107 (2):326–43.

———. 2014. “Reverse-Engineering Censorship in China: Randomized Experimentation and Participant Observation.” Science 345 (6199):1251722.

King, Gary, and Melissa Sands. 2015. “How Human Subjects Research Rules Mislead You and Your University, and What to Do About It.” Working Paper, August.

Kish, Leslie. 1979. “Samples and Censuses.” International Statistical Review 47 (2):99–109.

Kittur, Aniket, Jeffrey V. Nickerson, Michael Bernstein, Elizabeth Gerber, Aaron Shaw, John Zimmerman, Matt Lease, and John Horton. 2013. “The Future of Crowd Work.” In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1301–18. CSCW ’13. New York: ACM.

Kleinberg, Jon, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan, and Ziad Obermeyer. 2015. “Prediction Policy Problems.” American Economic Review 105 (5):491–95.

Kleinsman, John, and Sue Buckley. 2015. “Facebook Study: A Little Bit Unethical but Worth It?” Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (2):179–82.

Klitzman, Robert. 2015. The Ethics Police? The Struggle to Make Human Research Safe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kloumann, Isabel Mette, Chenhao Tan, Jon Kleinberg, and Lillian Lee. 2016. “Internet Collaboration on Extremely Difficult Problems: Research Versus Olympiad Questions on the Polymath Site.” In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on World Wide Web, 1283–92. WWW ’16. Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee.

Kohavi, Ron, Alex Deng, Brian Frasca, Roger Longbotham, Toby Walker, and Ya Xu. 2012. “Trustworthy Online Controlled Experiments: Five Puzzling Outcomes Explained.” In Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 786–94. KDD ’12. New York: ACM.

Kohavi, Ron, Alex Deng, Brian Frasca, Toby Walker, Ya Xu, and Nils Pohlmann. 2013. “Online Controlled Experiments at Large Scale.” In Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 1168–76. KDD ’13. New York: ACM.

Kohli, Pushmeet, Michael Kearns, Yoram Bachrach, Ralf Herbrich, David Stillwell, and Thore Graepel. 2012. “Colonel Blotto on Facebook: The Effect of Social Relations on Strategic Interaction.” In Proceedings of the 4th Annual ACM Web Science Conference, 141–50. WebSci ’12. New York, NY, USA: ACM.

Kohut, Andrew, Scott Keeter, Carroll Doherty, Michael Dimock, and Leah Christian. 2012. “Assessing the Representativeness of Public Opinion Surveys.” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC.

Konstan, Joseph A., and Yan Chen. 2007. “Online Field Experiments: Lessons from CommunityLab.” In Proceedings of Third International Conference on E-Social Science. Citeseer.

Kosinski, Michal, Sandra C. Matz, Samuel D. Gosling, Vesselin Popov, and David Stillwell. 2015. “Facebook as a Research Tool for the Social Sciences: Opportunities, Challenges, Ethical Considerations, and Practical Guidelines.” American Psychologist 70 (6):543–56.

Kosinski, Michal, David Stillwell, and Thore Graepel. 2013. “Private Traits and Attributes Are Predictable from Digital Records of Human Behavior.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, March.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2006. “Empirical Analysis of an Evolving Social Network.” Science 311 (5757):88–90.

———. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2):405–50.

Kramer, Adam D. I., Jamie E. Guillory, and Jeffrey T. Hancock. 2014. “Experimental Evidence of Massive-Scale Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (24):8788–90.

Kramer, Adam D.I. 2012. “The Spread of Emotion via Facebook.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 767–70. CHI ’12. New York: ACM.

Kraut, Robert E., Paul Resnick, Sara Kiesler, Moira Burke, Yan Chen, Niki Kittur, Joseph Konstan, Yuqing Ren, and John Riedl. 2012. Building Successful Online Communities: Evidence-Based Social Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kravitz, Richard L., Naihua Duan, and Joel Braslow. 2004. “Evidence-Based Medicine, Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects, and the Trouble with Averages.” Milbank Quarterly 82 (4):661–87.

Kreuter, Frauke, Stanley Presser, and Roger Tourangeau. 2008. “Social Desirability Bias in CATI, IVR, and Web Surveys the Effects of Mode and Question Sensitivity.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72 (5):847–65.

Krosnick, Jon A. 2011. “Experiments for Evaluating Survey Questions.” In Question Evaluation Methods, edited by Jennifer Madans, Kristen Miller, Aaron Maitland, and Gordon Willis, 213–38. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Kruskal, William, and Frederick Mosteller. 1979a. “Representative Sampling, I: Non-Scientific Literature.” International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique 47 (1):13–24.

———. 1979b. “Representative Sampling, II: Scientific Literature, Excluding Statistics.” International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique 47 (2):111–27.

———. 1979c. “Representative Sampling, III: The Current Statistical Literature.” International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique 47 (3):245–65.

———. 1980. “Representative Sampling, IV: The History of the Concept in Statistics, 1895-1939.” International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique 48 (2):169–95.

Kuminski, Evan, Joe George, John Wallin, and Lior Shamir. 2014. “Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images.” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 126 (944):959–67.

Laitin, David D. 2013. “Fisheries Management.” Political Analysis 21 (1):42–47.

Lakhani, Karim R., Kevin J. Boudreau, Po-Ru Loh, Lars Backstrom, Carliss Baldwin, Eric Lonstein, Mike Lydon, Alan MacCormack, Ramy A. Arnaout, and Eva C. Guinan. 2013. “Prize-Based Contests Can Provide Solutions to Computational Biology Problems.” Nature Biotechnology 31 (2):108–11.

Lamb, Anne, Jascha Smilack, Andrew Ho, and Justin Reich. 2015. “Addressing Common Analytic Challenges to Randomized Experiments in MOOCs: Attrition and Zero-Inflation.” In Proceedings of the Second (2015) ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale, 21–30. L@S ’15. New York: ACM.

Landau, Susan. 2016. “Transactional Information Is Remarkably Revelatory.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (20):5467–9.

Lane, Jeffrey. 2016. “The Digital Street an Ethnographic Study of Networked Street Life in Harlem.” American Behavioral Scientist 60 (1):43–58.

Lanier, Jaron. 2014. Who Owns the Future? Reprint ed. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Larsen, Michael, and William E. Winkler. 2014. Handbook of Record Linkage Methods. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Law, Edith, and Luis von Ahn. 2011. Human Computation. Synthesis Lectures on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Morgan & Claypool.

Lax, Jeffrey R., and Justin H. Phillips. 2009. “How Should We Estimate Public Opinion in the States?” American Journal of Political Science 53 (1):107–21.

Lazer, David. 2015. “Issues of Construct Validity and Reliability in Massive, Passive Data Collections.” The City Papers: An Essay Collection from the Decent City Initiative.

Lazer, David, Ryan Kennedy, Gary King, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2014. “The Parable of Google Flu: Traps in Big Data Analysis.” Science 343 (6176):1203–5.

Lazer, David, Alex Pentland, Lada Adamic, Sinan Aral, Albert-László Barabási, Devon Brewer, Nicholas Christakis, et al. 2009. “Computational Social Science.” Science 323 (5915):721–23.

Ledford, Heidi. 2007. “Patent Examiners Call in the Jury.” Nature 448 (7151):239.

Lee, Sunghee. 2006. “Propensity Score Adjustment as a Weighting Scheme for Volunteer Panel Web Surveys.” Journal of Official Statistics 22 (2):329–49.

Lee, Sunghee, and Richard Valliant. 2009. “Estimation for Volunteer Panel Web Surveys Using Propensity Score Adjustment and Calibration Adjustment.” Sociological Methods & Research 37 (3):319–43.

Legewie, Joscha. 2015. “The Promise and Perils of Big Data for Social Science Research.” The Cities Papers.

———. 2016. “Racial Profiling and Use of Force in Police Stops: How Local Events Trigger Periods of Increased Discrimination.” American Journal of Sociology 122 (2):379–424.

Lerner, Barron H. 2004. “Sins of Omission Cancer Research Without Informed Consent.” New England Journal of Medicine 351 (7):628–30.

Levitt, Steven D., and John A. List. 2007a. “What Do Laboratory Experiments Measuring Social Preferences Reveal About the Real World?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 21 (2):153–74.

———. 2007b. “Viewpoint: On the Generalizability of Lab Behaviour to the Field.” Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d’économique 40 (2):347–70.

———. 2009. “Field Experiments in Economics: The Past, the Present, and the Future.” European Economic Review 53 (1):1–18.

———. 2011. “Was There Really a Hawthorne Effect at the Hawthorne Plant? An Analysis of the Original Illumination Experiments.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 3 (1):224–38.

Levy, Karen E. C., and Solon Baracas. 2017. “Refractive Surveillance: Monitoring Customers to Manage Workers.” International Journal of Communication forthcoming.

Lewis, Kevin. 2015a. “Studying Online Behavior: Comment on Anderson et Al. 2014.” Sociological Science 2 (January):20–31.

———. 2015b. “Three Fallacies of Digital Footprints.” Big Data & Society 2 (2):2053951715602496.

Lewis, Kevin, Marco Gonzalez, and Jason Kaufman. 2012. “Social Selection and Peer Influence in an Online Social Network.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (1):68–72.

Lewis, Kevin, Jason Kaufman, Marco Gonzalez, Andreas Wimmer, and Nicholas Christakis. 2008. “Tastes, Ties, and Time: A New Social Network Dataset Using Facebook.Com.” Social Networks 30 (4):330–42.

Lewis, Randall A., and Justin M. Rao. 2015. “The Unfavorable Economics of Measuring the Returns to Advertising.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 130 (4):1941–73.

Lin, Mingfeng, Henry C. Lucas, and Galit Shmueli. 2013. “Research Commentary – Too Big to Fail: Large Samples and the P-Value Problem.” Information Systems Research 24 (4):906–17.

Lin, Winston. 2013. “Agnostic Notes on Regression Adjustments to Experimental Data: Reexamining Freedman’s Critique.” Annals of Applied Statistics 7 (1):295–318.

Lin, Winston, and Donald P. Green. 2016. “Standard Operating Procedures: A Safety Net for Pre-Analysis Plans.” PS: Political Science & Politics 49 (3):495–500.

Lind, Laura H., Michael F. Schober, Frederick G. Conrad, and Heidi Reichert. 2013. “Why Do Survey Respondents Disclose More When Computers Ask the Questions?” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (4):888–935.

Lintott, Chris J, Kevin Schawinski, Anže Slosar, Kate Land, Steven Bamford, Daniel Thomas, M. Jordan Raddick, et al. 2008. “Galaxy Zoo: Morphologies Derived from Visual Inspection of Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 389 (3):1179–89.

Lintott, Chris, Kevin Schawinski, Steven Bamford, Anže Slosar, Kate Land, Daniel Thomas, Edd Edmondson, et al. 2011. “Galaxy Zoo 1: Data Release of Morphological Classifications for Nearly 900 000 Galaxies.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 410 (1):166–78.

List, John A. 2011. “Why Economists Should Conduct Field Experiments and 14 Tips for Pulling One Off.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (3):3–16.

List, John A., Sally Sadoff, and Mathis Wagner. 2011. “So You Want to Run an Experiment, Now What? Some Simple Rules of Thumb for Optimal Experimental Design.” Experimental Economics 14 (4):439.

List, John A., Azeem M. Shaikh, and Yang Xu. 2016. “Multiple Hypothesis Testing in Experimental Economics.” Working Paper 21875. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Little, Roderick J. 1993. “Post-Stratification: A Modeler’s Perspective.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 88 (423):1001–12.

Little, Roderick J. A., and Donald B. Rubin. 2002. Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.

Liu, Yabing, Chloe Kliman-Silver, and Alan Mislove. 2014. “The Tweets They Are a-Changin: Evolution of Twitter Users and Behavior.” In ICWSM, 30:5–314.

Loewen, Peter John, Daniel Rubenson, and Leonard Wantchekon. 2010. “Help Me Help You: Conducting Field Experiments with Political Elites.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 628 (1):165–75.

Lohr, Sharon L. 2009. Sampling: Design and Analysis. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Longford, Nicholas T. 1999. “Selection Bias and Treatment Heterogeneity in Clinical Trials.” Statistics in Medicine 18 (12):1467–74.<1467::AID-SIM149>3.0.CO;2-H.

Lowrance, William W. 2012. Privacy, Confidentiality, and Health Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lu, Xin, Linus Bengtsson, and Petter Holme. 2012. “Predictability of Population Displacement After the 2010 Haiti Earthquake.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (29):11576–81.

Lucking-Reiley, David. 1999. “Using Field Experiments to Test Equivalence Between Auction Formats: Magic on the Internet.” American Economic Review 89 (5):1063–80.

Ludwig, Jens, Jeffrey R. Kling, and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2011. “Mechanism Experiments and Policy Evaluations.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (3):17–38.

Lung, J. 2012. “Ethical and Legal Considerations of reCAPTCHA.” In 2012 Tenth Annual International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST), 211–16.

Lusinchi, Dominic. 2012. “‘President’ Landon and the 1936 ‘Literary Digest’ Poll: Were Automobile and Telephone Owners to Blame?” Social Science History 36 (1):23–54.

MacCarthy, Mark. 2015. “Privacy Restrictions and Contextual Harm.” Working Paper.

Mackenzie, Donald. 2008. An Engine, Not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Maddock, Jim, Robert Mason, and Kate Starbird. 2015. “Using Historical Twitter Data for Research: Ethical Challenges of Tweet Deletions.” In CSCW 15 Workshop on Ethics at the 2015 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Vancouver, Canada.

Magdy, Walid, Kareem Darwish, and Ingmar Weber. 2016. “#FailedRevolutions: Using Twitter to Study the Antecedents of ISIS Support.” First Monday 21 (2).

Malhotra, Neil, and Jon A. Krosnick. 2007. “The Effect of Survey Mode and Sampling on Inferences About Political Attitudes and Behavior: Comparing the 2000 and 2004 ANES to Internet Surveys with Nonprobability Samples.” Political Analysis 15 (3):286–323.

Malone, Thomas W., and Michael S. Bernstein. 2015. Handbook of Collective Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Manson, Neil C., and Onora O’Neill. 2007. Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Manzi, Jim. 2012. Uncontrolled: The Surprising Payoff of Trial-and-Error for Business, Politics, and Society. New York: Basic Books.

Mao, Andrew, Winter Mason, Siddharth Suri, and Duncan J. Watts. 2016. “An Experimental Study of Team Size and Performance on a Complex Task.” PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153048.

Mao, Huina, Scott Counts, Johan Bollen, and others. 2015. “Quantifying the Effects of Online Bullishness on International Financial Markets.” In ECB Workshop on Using Big Data for Forecasting and Statistics, Frankfurt, Germany.

Margetts, Helen, Peter John, Tobias Escher, and Stéphane Reissfelder. 2011. “Social Information and Political Participation on the Internet: An Experiment.” European Political Science Review 3 (3):321–44.

Markham, Annette, and Elizabeth Buchanan. 2012. “Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee.” Version 2.0. Association of Internet Researchers.

Marshall, Philip J., Chris J. Lintott, and Leigh N. Fletcher. 2015. “Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy.” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 53 (1):247–78.

Martinez-Ebers, Valerie. 2016. “Introduction.” PS: Political Science & Politics 49 (2):287–88.

Marx, Gary T. 2016. Windows into the Soul: Surveillance and Society in an Age of High Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mas, Alexandre, and Enrico Moretti. 2009. “Peers at Work.” American Economic Review 99 (1):112–45.

Mason, Winter, and Siddharth Suri. 2012. “Conducting Behavioral Research on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk.” Behavior Research Methods 44 (1):1–23.

Mason, Winter, and Duncan J Watts. 2009. “Financial Incentives and the ‘Performance of Crowds’.” Proceedings of the Human Computation (HCOMP) Workshop: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Conference 11:100–108.

Masters, Karen L. 2009. “She’s an Astronomer: Aida Berges.” Galaxy Zoo.

Masters, Karen L. 2012. “A Zoo of Galaxies.” Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 10 (H16):1–15.

Masters, Karen L, Robert C Nichol, Ben Hoyle, Chris Lintott, Steven P Bamford, Edward M Edmondson, Lucy Fortson, et al. 2011. “Galaxy Zoo: Bars in Disc Galaxies.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 411 (3):2026–34.

Mastroianni, Anna, and Jeffrey Kahn. 2001. “Swinging on the Pendulum: Shifting Views of Justice in Human Subjects Research.” Hastings Center Report 31 (3):21–28.

Mauboussin, Michael J. 2012. The Success Equation: Untangling Skill and Luck in Business, Sports, and Investing. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Mayer, Jonathan, Patrick Mutchler, and John C. Mitchell. 2016. “Evaluating the Privacy Properties of Telephone Metadata.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (20):5536–41.

Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor. 2009. Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor, and Kenneth Cukier. 2013. Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think. Boston: Eamon Dolan/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Maynard, Douglas W. 2014. “News from Somewhere, News from Nowhere on the Study of Interaction in Ethnographic Inquiry.” Sociological Methods & Research 43 (2):210–18.

Maynard, Douglas W., Jeremy Freese, and Nora Cate Schaeffer. 2010. “Calling for Participation Requests, Blocking Moves, and Rational (Inter)action in Survey Introductions.” American Sociological Review 75 (5):791–814.

Maynard, Douglas W., and Nora Cate Schaeffer. 1997. “Keeping the Gate: Declinations of the Request to Participate in a Telephone Survey Interview.” Sociological Methods & Research 26 (1):34–79.

Mayo-Wilson, Evan, Paul Montgomery, Sally Hopewell, Geraldine Macdonald, David Moher, and Sean Grant. 2013. “Developing a Reporting Guideline for Social and Psychological Intervention Trials.” British Journal of Psychiatry 203 (4):250–54.

McDonald, Sean. 2016. “Ebola: A Big Data Disaster.” CIS Papers 2016.01. The Centre for Internet & Society.

McFarland, Daniel A., and H. Richard McFarland. 2015. “Big Data and the Danger of Being Precisely Inaccurate.” Big Data & Society 2 (2).

McKenzie, David. 2012. “Beyond Baseline and Follow-up: The Case for More T in Experiments.” Journal of Development Economics 99 (2):210–21.

Meissner, Peter, and R Core Team. 2016. “Wikipediatrend: Public Subject Attention via Wikipedia Page View Statistics.”

Mervis, Jeffrey. 2014. “How Two Economists Got Direct Access to IRS Tax Records.”

Merz, Nicolas, Sven Regel, and Jirka Lewandowski. 2016. “The Manifesto Corpus: A New Resource for Research on Political Parties and Quantitative Text Analysis.” Research & Politics 3 (2):2053168016643346.

Metcalf, Jacob. 2016. “Big Data Analytics and Revision of the Common Rule.” Communications of the ACM 59 (7):31–33.

Metcalf, Jacob, and Kate Crawford. 2016. “Where Are Human Subjects in Big Data Research? The Emerging Ethics Divide.” Big Data & Society 3 (1):1–14.

Meyer, Bruce D., Wallace K. C. Mok, and James X. Sullivan. 2015. “Household Surveys in Crisis.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 29 (4):199–226.

Meyer, Michelle N. 2014. “Misjudgements Will Drive Social Trials Underground.” Nature 511 (7509):265–65.

———. 2015. “Two Cheers for Corporate Experimentation: The A/B Illusion and the Virtues of Data-Driven Innovation.” Colorado Technology Law Review 13 (2):273–332.

Michel, Jean-Baptiste, Yuan Kui Shen, Aviva P. Aiden, Adrian Veres, Matthew K. Gray, The Google Books Team, Joseph P. Pickett, et al. 2011. “Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books.” Science 331 (6014):176–82.

Middlemist, R. D., E. S. Knowles, and C. F. Matter. 1976. “Personal Space Invasions in the Lavatory: Suggestive Evidence for Arousal.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33 (5):541–46.

Milkman, Katherine L., Modupe Akinola, and Dolly Chugh. 2012. “Temporal Distance and Discrimination an Audit Study in Academia.” Psychological Science 23 (7):710–17.

Miller, Franklin G. 2014. “Clinical Research Before Informed Consent.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (2):141–57.

Mills, Judson. 1976. “A Procedure for Explaining Experiments Involving Deception.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2 (1):3–13.

Mitchell, Gregory. 2012. “Revisiting Truth or Triviality: The External Validity of Research in the Psychological Laboratory.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 7 (2):109–17.

Molloy, Jennifer C. 2011. “The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science.” PLoS Biology 9 (12):e1001195.

Monogan, James E. 2013. “A Case for Registering Studies of Political Outcomes: An Application in the 2010 House Elections.” Political Analysis 21 (1):21–37.

Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre de, Laura Radaelli, Vivek Kumar Singh, and Alex Sandy Pentland. 2015. “Unique in the Shopping Mall: On the Reidentifiability of Credit Card Metadata.” Science 347 (6221):536–39.

Moore, David W. 2002. “Measuring New Types of Question-Order Effects: Additive and Subtractive.” Public Opinion Quarterly 66 (1):80–91.

Morens, David M., and Anthony S. Fauci. 2007. “The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Insights for the 21st Century.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 195 (7):1018–28.

Morgan, Stephen L., and Christopher Winship. 2014. Counterfactuals and Causal Inference: Methods and Principles for Social Research. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Morton, Rebecca B., and Kenneth C. Williams. 2010. Experimental Political Science and the Study of Causality: From Nature to the Lab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mosteller, Frederick. 1949. The Pre-Election Polls of 1948: The Report to the Committee on Analysis of Pre-Election Polls and Forecasts. Vol. 60. Social Science Research Council.

Motl, Jonathan R. 2015. “McCulloch V. Stanford and Dartmouth.” COPP 2014-CFP-046. Helena, MT: Commissioner of Political Practices of the State of Montana.

Muchnik, Lev, Sinan Aral, and Sean J. Taylor. 2013. “Social Influence Bias: A Randomized Experiment.” Science 341 (6146):647–51.

Munger, Kevin. 2016. “Tweetment Effects on the Tweeted: Experimentally Reducing Racist Harassment.” Working Paper.

Murphy, Kevin P. 2012. Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Murray, Michael P. 2006. “Avoiding Invalid Instruments and Coping with Weak Instruments.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (4):111–32.

Mutz, Diana C. 2011. Population-Based Survey Experiments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mutz, Diana C., and Robin Pemantle. 2015. “Standards for Experimental Research: Encouraging a Better Understanding of Experimental Methods.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 2 (2):192–215.

Narayanan, Arvind, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew Miller, and Steven Goldfeder. 2016. Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive Introduction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Narayanan, Arvind, Joanna Huey, and Edward W. Felten. 2016. “A Precautionary Approach to Big Data Privacy.” In Data Protection on the Move, edited by Serge Gutwirth, Ronald Leenes, and Paul De Hert, 357–85. Law, Governance and Technology Series 24. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Narayanan, Arvind, and Vitaly Shmatikov. 2008. “Robust de-Anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets.” In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 111–25. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

———. 2010. “Myths and Fallacies of ‘Personally Identifiable Information’.” Communications of the ACM 53 (6):24–26.

Narayanan, Arvind, and Bendert Zevenbergen. 2015. “No Encore for Encore? Ethical Questions for Web-Based Censorship Measurement.” Technology Science, December.

National Research Council. 2013. Nonresponse in Social Science Surveys: A Research Agenda. Edited by Roger Tourangeau and Thomas J. Plewe. Panel on a Research Agenda for the Future of Social Science Data Collection, Committee on National Statistics. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

———. 2014. Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Committee on Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Netflix. 2009. “Netflix Prize: View Leaderboard.”

Neuhaus, Fabian, and Timothy Webmoor. 2012. “Agile Ethics for Massified Research and Visualization.” Information, Communication & Society 15 (1):43–65.

Neumark, David, Roy J. Bank, and Kyle D. Van Nort. 1996. “Sex Discrimination in Restaurant Hiring: An Audit Study.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 111 (3):915–41.

Newman, Mark W., Debra Lauterbach, Sean A. Munson, Paul Resnick, and Margaret E. Morris. 2011. “It’s Not That I Don’t Have Problems, I’m Just Not Putting Them on Facebook: Challenges and Opportunities in Using Online Social Networks for Health.” In Proceedings of the ACM 2011 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 341–50. CSCW ’11. New York: ACM.

Newport, Frank. 2011. “Presidential Address: Taking AAPOR’s Mission to Heart.” Public Opinion Quarterly 75 (3):593–604.

Nickerson, David W., and Susan D. Hyde. 2016. “Conducting Research with NGOs: Relevant Counterfactuals from the Perspective of Subjects.” In Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals, edited by Scott Desposato, 198–216. New York: Routledge.

Nielsen, Michael. 2012. Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Nisbett, Richard E., and Timothy D. Wilson. 1977. “Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes.” Psychological Review 84 (3):231–59.

Nissenbaum, Helen. 2010. Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law Books.

———. 2011. “A Contextual Approach to Privacy Online.” Daedalus 140 (4):32–48.

———. 2015. “Respecting Context to Protect Privacy: Why Meaning Matters.” Science and Engineering Ethics, July.

Noort, Sander P. van, Cláudia T. Codeço, Carl E. Koppeschaar, Marc van Ranst, Daniela Paolotti, and M. Gabriela M. Gomes. 2015. “Ten-Year Performance of Influenzanet: ILI Time Series, Risks, Vaccine Effects, and Care-Seeking Behaviour.” Epidemics 13 (December):28–36.

Nosek, Brian A., and Daniël Lakens. 2014. “Registered Reports: A Method to Increase the Credibility of Published Results.” Social Psychology 45 (3):137–41.

Nov, Oded, Ofer Arazy, and David Anderson. 2011. “Dusting for Science: Motivation and Participation of Digital Citizen Science Volunteers.” In Proceedings of the 2011 iConference, 68–74. iConference ’11. New York: ACM.

Noveck, Beth Simone. 2006. “Peer to Patent: Collective Intelligence, Open Review, and Patent Reform.” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 20 (1):123–62.

———. 2009. Wiki Government: How Technology Can Make Government Better, Democracy Stronger, and Citizens More Powerful. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Oczak, Malgorzata, and Agnieszka Niedźwieńska. 2007. “Debriefing in Deceptive Research: A Proposed New Procedure.” Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 2 (3):49–59.

Ohm, Paul. 2010. “Broken Promises of Privacy: Responding to the Surprising Failure of Anonymization.” UCLA Law Review 57:1701–77.

———. 2015. “Sensitive Information.” Southern California Law Review 88:1125–96.

Ohmer, Susan. 2006. George Gallup in Hollywood. New York: Columbia University Press.

Olken, Benjamin A. 2015. “Promises and Perils of Pre-Analysis Plans.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 29 (3):61–80.

Olson, Donald R., Kevin J. Konty, Marc Paladini, Cecile Viboud, and Lone Simonsen. 2013. “Reassessing Google Flu Trends Data for Detection of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza: A Comparative Epidemiological Study at Three Geographic Scales.” PLoS Computational Biology 9 (10):e1003256.

Olson, Janice A. 1996. “The Health and Retirement Study: The New Retirement Survey.” Social Security Bulletin 59:85.

———. 1999. “Linkages with Data from Social Security Administrative Records in the Health and Retirement Study.” Social Security Bulletin 62:73.

Orne, Martin T. 1962. “On the Social Psychology of the Psychological Experiment: With Particular Reference to Demand Characteristics and Their Implications.” American Psychologist 17 (11):776–83.

Orr, Larry L. 1998. Social Experiments: Evaluating Public Programs with Experimental Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Overton, W. Scott, and Stephen V. Stehman. 1995. “The Horvitz-Thompson Theorem as a Unifying Perspective for Probability Sampling: With Examples from Natural Resource Sampling.” American Statistician 49 (3):261–68.

O’Connor, Dan. 2013. “The Apomediated World: Regulating Research When Social Media Has Changed Research.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (2):470–83.

O’Doherty, Kieran C., Emily Christofides, Jeffery Yen, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Wylie Burke, Nina Hallowell, Barbara A. Koenig, and Donald J. Willison. 2016. “If You Build It, They Will Come: Unintended Future Uses of Organised Health Data Collections.” BMC Medical Ethics 17:54.

O’Neil, Cathy. 2016. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. New York: Crown.

Pacheco, Julianna. 2011. “Using National Surveys to Measure Dynamic U.S. State Public Opinion A Guideline for Scholars and an Application.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 11 (4):415–39.

Packard, Vance. 1964. The Naked Society. New York: D. McKay.

Page, Lindsay C., Avi Feller, Todd Grindal, Luke Miratrix, and Marie-Andree Somers. 2015. “Principal Stratification A Tool for Understanding Variation in Program Effects Across Endogenous Subgroups.” American Journal of Evaluation 36 (4):514–31.

Page, Scott E. 2008. The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Pager, Devah. 2007. “The Use of Field Experiments for Studies of Employment Discrimination: Contributions, Critiques, and Directions for the Future.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 609:104–33.

Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, and Donald P. Green. 2009. “Deference, Dissent, and Dispute Resolution: An Experimental Intervention Using Mass Media to Change Norms and Behavior in Rwanda.” American Political Science Review 103 (4):622–44.

Panagopoulos, Costas. 2010. “Affect, Social Pressure and Prosocial Motivation: Field Experimental Evidence of the Mobilizing Effects of Pride, Shame and Publicizing Voting Behavior.” Political Behavior 32 (3):369–86.

Panger, Galen. 2016. “Reassessing the Facebook Experiment: Critical Thinking About the Validity of Big Data Research.” Information, Communication & Society 19 (8):1108–26.

Paolacci, G., J. Chandler, and P. G Ipeirotis. 2010. “Running Experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk.” Judgment and Decision Making 5 (5):411–19.

Parigi, Paolo, Jessica J. Santana, and Karen S. Cook. 2017. “Online Field Experiments: Studying Social Interactions in Context.” Social Psychology Quarterly, January, 0190272516680842.

Park, David K., Andrew Gelman, and Joseph Bafumi. 2004. “Bayesian Multilevel Estimation with Poststratification: State-Level Estimates from National Polls.” Political Analysis 12 (4):375–85.

Parry, Marc. 2011. “Harvard Researchers Accused of Breaching Students’ Privacy.” Chronicle of Higher Education, July.

Partridge, Craig, and Mark Allman. 2016. “Ethical Considerations in Network Measurement Papers.” Communications of the ACM 59 (10):58–64.

Pasek, Josh, S. Mo Jang, Curtiss L. Cobb, J. Michael Dennis, and Charles Disogra. 2014. “Can Marketing Data Aid Survey Research? Examining Accuracy and Completeness in Consumer-File Data.” Public Opinion Quarterly 78 (4):889–916.

Pe-Than, Ei Pa Pa, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, and Chei Sian Lee. 2015. “A Typology of Human Computation Games: An Analysis and a Review of Current Games.” Behaviour & Information Technology 34 (8):809–24.

Pearl, Judea. 2009. Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

———. 2015. “Generalizing Experimental Findings.” Journal of Causal Inference 3 (2):259–66.

Pearl, Judea, and Elias Bareinboim. 2014. “External Validity: From Do-Calculus to Transportability Across Populations.” Statistical Science 29 (4):579–95.

Pearl, Judea, Madelyn Glymour, and Nicholas P. Jewell. 2016. Causal Inference in Statistics: A Primer. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Penney, Jonathon. 2016. “Chilling Effects: Online Surveillance and Wikipedia Use.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 31 (1):117.

Pentland, Alex “Sandy”. 2012. “Society’s Nervous System: Building Effective Government, Energy, and Public Health Systems.” Computer 45 (1):31–38.

Pepe, Margaret Sullivan. 1992. “Inference Using Surrogate Outcome Data and a Validation Sample.” Biometrika 79 (2):355–65.

Phan, Tuan Q., and Edoardo M. Airoldi. 2015. “A Natural Experiment of Social Network Formation and Dynamics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (21):6595–6600.

Phelan, Chanda, Cliff Lampe, and Paul Resnick. 2016. “It’s Creepy, but It Doesn’t Bother Me.” In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 5240–51. CHI ’16. New York: ACM.

Piatetsky, Gregory. 2007. “Interview with Simon Funk.” SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter 9 (1):38–40.

Pickard, Galen, Wei Pan, Iyad Rahwan, Manuel Cebrian, Riley Crane, Anmol Madan, and Alex Pentland. 2011. “Time-Critical Social Mobilization.” Science 334 (6055):509–12.

Pink, Sarah, Heather Horst, John Postill, Larissa Hjorth, Tania Lewis, and Jo Tacchi. 2015. Digital Ethnography: Principles and Practice. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Pirlott, Angela G., and David P. MacKinnon. 2016. “Design Approaches to Experimental Mediation.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 66:29–38.

Polgreen, Philip M., Yiling Chen, David M. Pennock, and Forrest D. Nelson. 2008. “Using Internet Searches for Influenza Surveillance.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (11):1443–8.

Polonetsky, Jules, Omer Tene, and Joseph Jerome. 2015. “Beyond the Common Rule: Ethical Structures for Data Research in Non-Academic Settings.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2621559. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Porter, Joan P., and Greg Koski. 2008. “Regulations for the Protection of Humans in Research in the United States: The Common Rule.” In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Porter, Nathaniel D., Ashton M. Verdery, and S. Michael Gaddis. 2016. “Big Data’s Little Brother: Enhancing Big Data in the Social Sciences with Micro-Task Marketplaces.” arXiv:1609.08437 [Cs], September.

Preist, Chris, Elaine Massung, and David Coyle. 2014. “Competing or Aiming to Be Average?: Normification as a Means of Engaging Digital Volunteers.” In Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 1222–33. CSCW ’14. New York: ACM.

Prentice, Deborah A., and Dale T. Miller. 1992. “When Small Effects Are Impressive.” Psychological Bulletin 112 (1):160–64.

Presser, Stanley, and Johnny Blair. 1994. “Survey Pretesting: Do Different Methods Produce Different Results?” Sociological Methodology 24:73–104.

Presser, Stanley, Mick P. Couper, Judith T. Lessler, Elizabeth Martin, Jean Martin, Jennifer M. Rothgeb, and Eleanor Singer. 2004. “Methods for Testing and Evaluating Survey Questions.” Public Opinion Quarterly 68 (1):109–30.

Provost, Foster, and Tom Fawcett. 2013. “Data Science and Its Relationship to Big Data and Data-Driven Decision Making.” Big Data 1 (1):51–59.

Purdam, Kingsley. 2014. “Citizen Social Science and Citizen Data? Methodological and Ethical Challenges for Social Research.” Current Sociology 62 (3):374–92.

Pury, Cynthia L. S. 2011. “Automation Can Lead to Confounds in Text Analysis.” Psychological Science 22 (6):835–36.

Puschmann, Cornelius, and Engin Bozdag. 2014. “Staking Out the Unclear Ethical Terrain of Online Social Experiments.” Internet Policy Review 3 (4).

Puts, Marco, Piet Daas, and Ton de Waal. 2015. “Finding Errors in Big Data.” Significance 12 (3):26–29.

Quinn, Alexander J., and Benjamin B. Bederson. 2011. “Human Computation: A Survey and Taxonomy of a Growing Field.” In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1403–12. CHI ’11. New York: ACM.

R Core Team. 2016. “R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.” Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Raddick, M. Jordan, Georgia Bracey, Pamela L. Gay, Chris J. Lintott, Carie Cardamone, Phil Murray, Kevin Schawinski, Alexander S. Szalay, and Jan Vandenberg. 2013. “Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists.” Astronomy Education Review 12 (1).

Raftery, Adrian E., Nan Li, Hana Ševčíková, Patrick Gerland, and Gerhard K. Heilig. 2012. “Bayesian Probabilistic Population Projections for All Countries.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (35):13915–21.

Rand, David G. 2012. “The Promise of Mechanical Turk: How Online Labor Markets Can Help Theorists Run Behavioral Experiments.” Journal of Theoretical Biology, Evolution of Cooperation, 299 (April):172–79.

Rao, J.N.K, and Isabel Molina. 2015. Small Area Estimation. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Rashid, Al Mamunur, Istvan Albert, Dan Cosley, Shyong K. Lam, Sean M. McNee, Joseph A. Konstan, and John Riedl. 2002. “Getting to Know You: Learning New User Preferences in Recommender Systems.” In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 127–34. IUI ’02. New York: ACM.

Rasinski, Kenneth A. 1989. “The Effect of Question Wording on Public Support for Government Spending.” Public Opinion Quarterly 53 (3):388–94.

Ratkiewicz, Jacob, Michael D. Conover, Mark Meiss, Bruno Goncalves, Alessandro Flammini, and Filippo Menczer Menczer. 2011. “Detecting and Tracking Political Abuse in Social Media.” In Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.

Reichman, Nancy E., Julien O. Teitler, Irwin Garfinkel, and Sara S. McLanahan. 2001. “Fragile Families: Sample and Design.” Children and Youth Services Review 23 (45):303–26.

Reiter, Jerome P. 2012. “Statistical Approaches to Protecting Confidentiality for Microdata and Their Effects on the Quality of Statistical Inferences.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76 (1):163–81.

Reiter, Jerome P., and Satkartar K. Kinney. 2011. “Sharing Confidential Data for Research Purposes: A Primer.” Epidemiology 22 (5):632–35.

Ren, Yuqing, F. Maxwell Harper, Sara Drenner, Loren Terveen, Sara Kiesler, John Riedl, and Robert E. Kraut. 2012. “Building Member Attachment in Online Communities: Applying Theories of Group Identity and Interpersonal Bonds.” MIS Quarterly 36 (3):841–64.

Reno, Raymond R., Robert B. Cialdini, and Carl A. Kallgren. 1993. “The Transsituational Influence of Social Norms.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (1):104–12.

Resnick, Brian. 2016. “Researchers Just Released Profile Data on 70,000 OkCupid Users Without Permission.” Vox.

Resnick, Paul, Richard Zeckhauser, John Swanson, and Kate Lockwood. 2006. “The Value of Reputation on eBay: A Controlled Experiment.” Experimental Economics 9 (2):79–101.

Resnik, David B., Kevin C. Elliott, and Aubrey K. Miller. 2015. “A Framework for Addressing Ethical Issues in Citizen Science.” Environmental Science & Policy 54 (December):475–81.

Restivo, Michael, and Arnout van de Rijt. 2012. “Experimental Study of Informal Rewards in Peer Production.” PLoS ONE 7 (3):e34358.

———. 2014. “No Praise Without Effort: Experimental Evidence on How Rewards Affect Wikipedia’s Contributor Community.” Information, Communication & Society 17 (4):451–62.

Riach, P. A, and J. Rich. 2002. “Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place.” Economic Journal 112 (483):F480–F518.

Riach, Peter A., and Judith Rich. 2004. “Deceptive Field Experiments of Discrimination: Are They Ethical?” Kyklos 57 (3):457–70.

Rich, Judith. 2014. “What Do Field Experiments of Discrimination in Markets Tell Us? A Meta Analysis of Studies Conducted Since 2000.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2517887. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Richman, Josh. 2015. “Stanford and Dartmouth Researchers Broke Law with Election Mailer, Montana Official Says.” San Jose Mercury News, May.

Rijt, Arnout van de, Idil Akin, Robb Willer, and Matthew Feinberg. 2016. “Success-Breeds-Success in Collective Political Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Sociological Science 3:940–50.

Rijt, Arnout van de, Soong Moon Kang, Michael Restivo, and Akshay Patil. 2014. “Field Experiments of Success-Breeds-Success Dynamics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (19):6934–9.

Robbins, Jim. 2013. “Crowdsourcing, for the Birds.” New York Times, August.

Robinson, Walter M., and Brandon T. Unruh. 2008. “The Hepatitis Experiments at the Willowbrook State School.” In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, edited by E. J. Emanuel, R. A. Crouch, C. Grady, R. K. Lie, F. G. Miller, and D. Wendler, 386–97. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rosenbaum, Paul R. 2002. Observational Studies. 2nd edition. New York: Springer.

———. 2015. “How to See More in Observational Studies: Some New Quasi-Experimental Devices.” Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application 2 (1):21–48.

Rosenzweig, Mark R., and Kenneth I. Wolpin. 2000. “Natural ‘Natural Experiments’ in Economics.” Journal of Economic Literature 38 (4):827–74.

Rothman, Kenneth J., John EJ Gallacher, and Elizabeth E. Hatch. 2013. “Why Representativeness Should Be Avoided.” International Journal of Epidemiology 42 (4):1012–4.

Rubin, Donald B. 2004. Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.

Russell, William Moy Stratton, and Rex Leonard Burch. 1959. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique.

Rutherford, Alex, Manuel Cebrian, Sohan Dsouza, Esteban Moro, Alex Pentland, and Iyad Rahwan. 2013. “Limits of Social Mobilization.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (16):6281–6.

Ruths, Derek, and Jürgen Pfeffer. 2014. “Social Media for Large Studies of Behavior.” Science 346 (6213):1063–4.

Saez-Rodriguez, Julio, James C. Costello, Stephen H. Friend, Michael R. Kellen, Lara Mangravite, Pablo Meyer, Thea Norman, and Gustavo Stolovitzky. 2016. “Crowdsourcing Biomedical Research: Leveraging Communities as Innovation Engines.” Nature Reviews Genetics 17 (8):470–86.

Sakshaug, Joseph W., Mick P. Couper, Mary Beth Ofstedal, and David R. Weir. 2012. “Linking Survey and Administrative Records Mechanisms of Consent.” Sociological Methods & Research 41 (4):535–69.

Sakshaug, Joseph W., and Frauke Kreuter. 2012. “Assessing the Magnitude of Non-Consent Biases in Linked Survey and Administrative Data.” Survey Research Methods 6 (2):113–22.

Salehi, Niloufar, Lilly C. Irani, Michael S. Bernstein, Ali Alkhatib, Eva Ogbe, Kristy Milland, and Clickhappier. 2015. “We Are Dynamo: Overcoming Stalling and Friction in Collective Action for Crowd Workers.” In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1621–30. CHI ’15. New York: ACM.

Salganik, Matthew J. 2007. “Success and Failure in Cultural Markets.” Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University.

Salganik, Matthew J., Peter Sheridan Dodds, and Duncan J. Watts. 2006. “Experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market.” Science 311 (5762):854–56.

Salganik, Matthew J., and Karen E. C. Levy. 2015. “Wiki Surveys: Open and Quantifiable Social Data Collection.” PLoS ONE 10 (5):e0123483.

Salganik, Matthew J., and Duncan J. Watts. 2008. “Leading the Herd Astray: An Experimental Study of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in an Artificial Cultural Market.” Social Psychology Quarterly 71 (4):338–55.

———. 2009a. “Social Influence: The Puzzling Nature of Success in Cultural Markets.” In The Oxford Handbook of Analytical Sociology, edited by Peter Hedström and Peter Bearman, 315–41. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

———. 2009b. “Web-Based Experiments for the Study of Collective Social Dynamics in Cultural Markets.” Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):439–68.

Sampson, Robert J., and Mario Luis Small. 2015. “Bringing Social Science Back in: The Big Data Revolution and Urban Theory.” The Cities Papers.

Sandvig, Christian, and Eszter Hargittai. 2015. “How to Think About Digital Research.” In Digital Research Confidential: The Secrets of Studying Behavior Online, edited by Eszter Hargittai and Christian Sandvig. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sandvig, Christian, and Karrie Karahalios. 2016. “Most of What You Do Online Is Illegal. Let’s End the Absurdity.” Guardian, June.

Santos, Robert L. 2014. “Presidential Address Borne of a Renaissance-A Metamorphosis for Our Future.” Public Opinion Quarterly 78 (3):769–77.

Saris, Willem E., and Irmtraud N. Gallhofer. 2014. Design, Evaluation, and Analysis of Questionnaires for Survey Research. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Sauermann, Henry, and Chiara Franzoni. 2015. “Crowd Science User Contribution Patterns and Their Implications.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (3):679–84.

Sauver, Jennifer L. St, Brandon R. Grossardt, Barbara P. Yawn, L. Joseph Melton, and Walter A. Rocca. 2011. “Use of a Medical Records Linkage System to Enumerate a Dynamic Population over Time: The Rochester Epidemiology Project.” American Journal of Epidemiology 173 (9):1059–68.

Särndal, Carl-Erik, and Sixten Lundström. 2005. Estimation in Surveys with Nonresponse. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Särndal, Carl-Erik, Bengt Swensson, and Jan Wretman. 2003. Model Assisted Survey Sampling. New York: Springer.

Schaeffer, Nora Cate, Dana Garbarski, Jeremy Freese, and Douglas W. Maynard. 2013. “An Interactional Model of the Call for Survey Participation Actions and Reactions in the Survey Recruitment Call.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (1):323–51.

Schauer, Frederick. 1978. “Fear, Risk and the First Amendment: Unraveling the Chilling Effect.” Boston University Law Review 58:685.

Schechter, Stuart, and Cristian Bravo-Lillo. 2014. “Using Ethical-Response Surveys to Identify Sources of Disapproval and Concern with Facebook’s Emotional Contagion Experiment and Other Controversial Studies.” Microsoft Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2014-97 (October).

Schmidt, F. A. 2013. “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Why Crowdsourcing Needs Ethics.” In 2013 Third International Conference on Cloud and Green Computing (CGC), 531–35.

Schneider, Carl E. 2015. The Censor’s Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schnell, Rainer. 2013. “Linking Surveys and Administrative Data.” German Record Linkage Center, Working Paper Series.

Schober, Michael F., and Frederick G. Conrad. 2015. “Improving Social Measurement by Understanding Interaction in Survey Interviews.” Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):211–19.

Schober, Michael F., Frederick G. Conrad, Christopher Antoun, Patrick Ehlen, Stefanie Fail, Andrew L. Hupp, Michael Johnston, Lucas Vickers, H. Yanna Yan, and Chan Zhang. 2015. “Precision and Disclosure in Text and Voice Interviews on Smartphones.” PLoS ONE 10 (6):e0128337.

Schober, Michael F., Josh Pasek, Lauren Guggenheim, Cliff Lampe, and Frederick G. Conrad. 2016. “Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement.” Public Opinion Quarterly 80 (1):180–211.

Schonlau, Matthias, Arthur van Soest, Arie Kapteyn, and Mick Couper. 2009. “Selection Bias in Web Surveys and the Use of Propensity Scores.” Sociological Methods & Research 37 (3):291–318.

Schrag, Zachary M. 2010. Ethical Imperialism: Institutional Review Boards and the Social Sciences, 1965-2009. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

———. 2011. “The Case Against Ethics Review in the Social Sciences.” Research Ethics 7 (4):120–31.

Schrage, Michael. 2011. “Q and A: The Experimenter.” MIT Technology Review.

Schultz, P. Wesley, Azar M. Khazian, and Adam C. Zaleski. 2008. “Using Normative Social Influence to Promote Conservation Among Hotel Guests.” Social Influence 3 (1):4–23.

Schultz, P. Wesley, Jessica M. Nolan, Robert B. Cialdini, Noah J. Goldstein, and Vladas Griskevicius. 2007. “The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms.” Psychological Science 18 (5):429–34.

Schultze, Ulrike, and Richard O. Mason. 2012. “Studying Cyborgs: Re-Examining Internet Studies as Human Subjects Research.” Journal of Information Technology 27 (4):301–12.

Schulz, Kenneth F., Douglas G. Altman, David Moher, and for the CONSORT Group. 2010. “CONSORT 2010 Statement: Updated Guidelines for Reporting Parallel Group Randomised Trials.” PLoS Medicine 7 (3):e1000251.

Schuman, Howard, and Stanley Presser. 1979. “The Open and Closed Question.” American Sociological Review 44 (5):692–712.

———. 1996. Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording, and Context. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Schwartz, Paul M., and Daniel J. Solove. 2011. “The PII Problem: Privacy and a New Concept of Personally Identifiable Information.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1909366. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Sears, David O. 1986. “College Sophomores in the Laboratory: Influences of a Narrow Data Base on Social Psychology’s View of Human Nature.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (3):515–30.

Sekhon, Jasjeet S. 2009. “Opiates for the Matches: Matching Methods for Causal Inference.” Annual Review of Political Science 12 (1):487–508.

Sekhon, Jasjeet S., and Rocío Titiunik. 2012. “When Natural Experiments Are Neither Natural nor Experiments.” American Political Science Review 106 (1):35–57.

Seltzer, William, and Margo Anderson. 2008. “Using Population Data Systems to Target Vulnerable Population Subgroups and Individuals: Issues and Incidents.” In Statistical Methods for Human Rights, edited by Jana Asher, David Banks, and Fritz J. Scheuren, 273–328. New York: Springer.

Shadish, William R. 2002. “Revisiting Field Experimentation: Field Notes for the Future.” Psychological Methods 7 (1):3–18.

Shadish, William R., and Thomas D. Cook. 2009. “The Renaissance of Field Experimentation in Evaluating Interventions.” Annual Review of Psychology 60 (1):607–29.

Shadish, William R., Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell. 2001. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. 2nd ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Shamir, Lior, Carol Yerby, Robert Simpson, Alexander M. von Benda-Beckmann, Peter Tyack, Filipa Samarra, Patrick Miller, and John Wallin. 2014. “Classification of Large Acoustic Datasets Using Machine Learning and Crowdsourcing: Application to Whale Calls.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 135 (2):953–62.

Sharma, Amit, Jake M. Hofman, and Duncan J. Watts. 2015. “Estimating the Causal Impact of Recommendation Systems from Observational Data.” In Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Economics and Computation, 453–70. EC ’15. New York: ACM.

———. 2016. “Split-Door Criterion for Causal Identification: Automatic Search for Natural Experiments.” arXiv:1611.09414 [Cs, Stat], November.

Shaw, David. 2015. “Facebooks Flawed Emotion Experiment: Antisocial Research on Social Network Users.” Research Ethics, May, 1747016115579535.

Sheehan, Mark. 2011. “Can Broad Consent Be Informed Consent?” Public Health Ethics 4 (3):226–35.

Shiffrin, Richard M. 2016. “Drawing Causal Inference from Big Data.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113 (27):7308–9.

Shmueli, Galit. 2010. “To Explain or to Predict?” Statistical Science 25 (3):289–310.

Simester, Duncan, Yu (Jeffrey) Hu, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Eric T Anderson. 2009. “Dynamics of Retail Advertising: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Economic Inquiry 47 (3):482–99.

Simmons, Joseph P., Leif D. Nelson, and Uri Simonsohn. 2011. “False-Positive Psychology Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant.” Psychological Science 22 (11):1359–66.

Singal, Amit G., Peter D. R. Higgins, and Akbar K. Waljee. 2014. “A Primer on Effectiveness and Efficacy Trials.” Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology 5 (1):e45.

Singel, Ryan. 2009. “Netflix Spilled Your Brokeback Mountain Secret, Lawsuit Claims.” Wired.

Singleton, Royce, Jr., and Bruce C. Straits. 2009. Approaches to Social Research. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter. 2014. “Consequentialism.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, Spring 2014.

Slowikowski, Kamil. 2016. “Ggrepel: Repulsive Text and Label Geoms for ’Ggplot2’.”

Small, Mario Luis. 2009. “How Many Cases Do I Need? On Science and the Logic of Case Selection in Field-Based Research.” Ethnography 10 (1):5–38.

Smith, Gordon C. S., and Jill P. Pell. 2003. “Parachute Use to Prevent Death and Major Trauma Related to Gravitational Challenge: Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials.” BMJ 327 (7429):1459–61.

Smith, T. M. F. 1976. “The Foundations of Survey Sampling: A Review.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 139 (2):183–204.

———. 1991. “Post-Stratification.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (the Statistician) 40 (3):315–23.

Smith, Tom W. 1987. “That Which We Call Welfare by Any Other Name Would Smell Sweeter: An Analysis of the Impact of Question Wording on Response Patterns.” Public Opinion Quarterly 51 (1):75–83.

———. 2011. “The Report of the International Workshop on Using Multi-Level Data from Sample Frames, Auxiliary Databases, Paradata and Related Sources to Detect and Adjust for Nonresponse Bias in Surveys.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 23 (3):389–402.

Sobel, Dava. 1996. Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

Soeller, Gary, Karrie Karahalios, Christian Sandvig, and Christo Wilson. 2016. “MapWatch: Detecting and Monitoring International Border Personalization on Online Maps.” In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on World Wide Web, 867–78. WWW ’16. Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee.

Solove, Daniel J. 2010. Understanding Privacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sommer, Robert. 1969. Personal Space: The Behavioral Basis of Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Sommers, Roseanna, and Franklin G. Miller. 2013. “Forgoing Debriefing in Deceptive Research: Is It Ever Ethical?” Ethics & Behavior 23 (2):98–116.

Sovey, Allison J., and Donald P. Green. 2011. “Instrumental Variables Estimation in Political Science: A Readers Guide.” American Journal of Political Science 55 (1):188–200.

Spector, Alfred, Peter Norvig, and Slav Petrov. 2012. “Google’s Hybrid Approach to Research.” Communications of the ACM 55 (7):34–37.

Spitz, Vivien. 2005. Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Boulder, CO: Sentient.

Squire, Peverill. 1988. “Why the 1936 Literary Digest Poll Failed.” Public Opinion Quarterly 52 (1):125–33.

Srivastava, Sameer B., Amir Goldberg, V. Govind Manian, and Christopher Potts. 2017. “Enculturation Trajectories: Language, Cultural Adaptation, and Individual Outcomes in Organizations.” Management Science, March.

Stark, Laura. 2012. Behind Closed Doors: IRBs and the Making of Ethical Research. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.

Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth. 2014. “The Cost of Racial Animus on a Black Candidate: Evidence Using Google Search Data.” Journal of Public Economics 118:26–40.

Stewart, Neil, Christoph Ungemach, Adam J.L. Harris, Daniel M. Bartels, Ben R. Newell, Gabriele Paolacci, and Jesse Chandler. 2015. “The Average Laboratory Samples a Population of 7,300 Amazon Mechanical Turk Workers.” Judgment and Decision Making 10 (5):479–91.

Stokes, Donald E. 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Stone, Arthur A., and Saul Shiffman. 1994. “Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Behavioral Medicine.” Annals of Behavioral Medicine 16 (3):199–202.

Stone, Arthur, Saul Shiffman, Audie Atienza, and Linda Nebeling, eds. 2007. The Science of Real-Time Data Capture: Self-Reports in Health Research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stuart, Elizabeth A. 2010. “Matching Methods for Causal Inference: A Review and a Look Forward.” Statistical Science 25 (1):1–21.

Su, Jessica, Aneesh Sharma, and Sharad Goel. 2016. “The Effect of Recommendations on Network Structure.” In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on World Wide Web, 1157–67. WWW ’16. Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee.

Subrahmanian, V. S., Amos Azaria, Skylar Durst, Vadim Kagan, Aram Galstyan, Kristina Lerman, Linhong Zhu, et al. 2016. “The DARPA Twitter Bot Challenge.” arXiv:1601.05140 [Physics], January.

Sugie, Naomi F. 2014. “Finding Work: A Smartphone Study of Job Searching, Social Contacts, and Wellbeing After Prison.” Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University.

———. 2016. “Utilizing Smartphones to Study Disadvantaged and Hard-to-Reach Groups.” Sociological Methods & Research, January.

Sullivan, Brian L., Jocelyn L. Aycrigg, Jessie H. Barry, Rick E. Bonney, Nicholas Bruns, Caren B. Cooper, Theo Damoulas, et al. 2014. “The eBird Enterprise: An Integrated Approach to Development and Application of Citizen Science.” Biological Conservation 169 (January):31–40.

Sunstein, Cass R. 2002. “Probability Neglect: Emotions, Worst Cases, and Law.” Yale Law Journal 112 (1):61–107.

———. 2005. Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Swanson, Alexandra, Margaret Kosmala, Chris Lintott, and Craig Packer. 2016. “A Generalized Approach for Producing, Quantifying, and Validating Citizen Science Data from Wildlife Images.” Conservation Biology 30 (3):520–31.

Sweeney, Latanya. 2002. “K-Anonymity: A Model for Protecting Privacy.” International Journal on Uncertainty Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems 10 (5):557–70.

Sweeney, Latanya, Mercè Crosas, and and Michael Bar-Sinai. 2015. “Sharing Sensitive Data with Confidence: The Datatags System.” Technology Science, October.

Taddy, Matt, Matt Gardner, Liyun Chen, and David Draper. 2016. “A Nonparametric Bayesian Analysis of Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in Digital Experimentation.” Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 34 (4):661–72.

Tang, John C., Manuel Cebrian, Nicklaus A. Giacobe, Hyun-Woo Kim, Taemie Kim, and Douglas “Beaker” Wickert. 2011. “Reflecting on the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge.” Communications of the ACM 54 (4):78–85.

Tavory, Iddo, and Ann Swidler. 2009. “Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi.” American Sociological Review 74 (2):171–89.

Taylor, Sean J. 2013. “Real Scientists Make Their Own Data.”

Taylor, Sean J., Eytan Bakshy, and Sinan Aral. 2013. “Selection Effects in Online Sharing: Consequences for Peer Adoption.” In Proceedings of the Fourteenth ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 821–36. EC ’13. New York: ACM.

Tene, Omer, and Jules Polonetsky. 2016. “Beyond IRBs: Ethical Guidelines for Data Research.” Washington and Lee Law Review Online 72 (3):458.

Thompson, Clive. 2008. “If You Liked This, You’re Sure to Love That - Winning the Netflix Prize.” New York Times Magazine, November.

Thomsen, Ib. 1973. “A Note on the Efficiency of Weighting Subclass Means to Reduce the Effects of Nonresponse When Analyzing Survey Data.” Statistisk Tidskrift 4:278–83.

Tilston, Natasha L., Ken T. D. Eames, Daniela Paolotti, Toby Ealden, and W. John Edmunds. 2010. “Internet-Based Surveillance of Influenza-Like-Illness in the UK During the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic.” BMC Public Health 10:650.

Tockar, Anthony. 2014. “Riding with the Stars: Passenger Privacy in the NYC Taxicab Dataset.” Neustar Research.

Toole, Jameson L., Yu-Ru Lin, Erich Muehlegger, Daniel Shoag, Marta C. González, and David Lazer. 2015. “Tracking Employment Shocks Using Mobile Phone Data.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12 (107):20150185.

Toomim, Michael, Travis Kriplean, Claus Pörtner, and James Landay. 2011. “Utility of Human-Computer Interactions: Toward a Science of Preference Measurement.” In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2275–84. CHI ’11. New York: ACM.

Torche, Florencia, and Uri Shwed. 2015. “The Hidden Costs of War: Exposure to Armed Conflict and Birth Outcomes.” Sociological Science 2:558–81.

Toshkov, Dimiter. 2015. “Exploring the Performance of Multilevel Modeling and Poststratification with Eurobarometer Data.” Political Analysis 23 (3):455–60.

Tourangeau, Roger. 2004. “Survey Research and Societal Change.” Annual Review of Psychology 55 (1):775–801.

Tourangeau, Roger, and Ting Yan. 2007. “Sensitive Questions in Surveys.” Psychological Bulletin 133 (5):859–83.

Tufekci, Zeynep. 2014. “Big Questions for Social Media Big Data: Representativeness, Validity and Other Methodological Pitfalls.” In Proceedings of the Eighth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 505–14.

Tuite, Kathleen, Noah Snavely, Dun-yu Hsiao, Nadine Tabing, and Zoran Popovic. 2011. “PhotoCity: Training Experts at Large-Scale Image Acquisition Through a Competitive Game.” In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1383–92. CHI ’11. New York: ACM.

Tumasjan, A., T.O. Sprenger, P.G. Sandner, and I.M. Welpe. 2010. “Predicting Elections with Twitter: What 140 Characters Reveal About Political Sentiment.” In Proceedings of the Fourth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 178–85.

Tumasjan, Andranik, Timm O. Sprenger, Philipp G. Sandner, and Isabell M. Welpe. 2012. “Where There Is a Sea There Are Pirates: Response to Jungherr, Jürgens, and Schoen.” Social Science Computer Review 30 (2):235–39.

Tversky, Amos, and Daniel Kahneman. 1981. “The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice.” Science 211 (4481):453–58.

Ugander, Johan, Brian Karrer, Lars Backstrom, and Cameron Marlow. 2011. “The Anatomy of the Facebook Social Graph.” arXiv:1111.4503 [Physics], November.

Urbanek, Simon. 2013. “Png: Read and Write PNG Images.”

Vaccaro, K., K. Karahalios, C. Sandvig, K. Hamilton, and C. Langbort. 2015. “Agree or Cancel? Research and Terms of Service Compliance.” In ACM CSCW Ethics Workshop: Ethics for Studying Sociotechnical Systems in a Big Data World. Vaccaro-CSCW-Ethics-2015.pdf.

Vaillant, Gabriela Gonzalez, Juhi Tyagi, Idil Afife Akin, Fernanda Page Poma, Michael Schwartz, and Arnout van de Rijt. 2015. “A Field-Experimental Study of Emergent Mobilization in Online Collective Action.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 20 (3):281–303.

Vaisey, Stephen. 2014. “The Attitudinal Fallacy Is a Fallacy: Why We Need Many Methods to Study Culture.” Sociological Methods & Research 43 (2):227–31.

Valliant, Richard, and Jill A. Dever. 2011. “Estimating Propensity Adjustments for Volunteer Web Surveys.” Sociological Methods & Research 40 (1):105–37.

VanderWeele, T. J., and S. Vansteelandt. 2014. “Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.” Epidemiologic Methods 2 (1):95–115.

VanderWeele, Tyler. 2015. Explanation in Causal Inference: Methods for Mediation and Interaction. New York: Oxford University Press.

VanderWeele, Tyler J. 2009. “Mediation and Mechanism.” European Journal of Epidemiology 24 (5):217–24.

VanderWeele, Tyler J., and Ilya Shpitser. 2013. “On the Definition of a Confounder.” Annals of Statistics 41 (1):196–220.

Vaughan, Ted R. 1967. “Governmental Intervention in Social Research: Political and Ethical Dimensions in the Wichita Jury Recordings.” In Ethics, Politics, and Social Research, edited by Gideon Sjoberg, 50–77. Cambirdge, MA: Schenkman.

Verma, Inder M. 2014. “Editorial Expression of Concern: Experimental Evidence of Massive-Scale Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (29):10779.

Vo, Huy, and Claudio Silvia. 2016. “Programming with Big Data.” In Big Data and Social Science: A Practical Guide to Methods and Tools, edited by Ian Foster, Rayid Ghani, Ron S. Jarmin, Frauke Kreuter, and Julia Lane, 125–43. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Wakefield, Sara, and Christopher Uggen. 2010. “Incarceration and Stratification.” Annual Review of Sociology 36 (1):387–406.

Waksberg, Joseph. 1978. “Sampling Methods for Random Digit Dialing.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 73 (361):40–46.

Waldrop, M. Mitchell. 2016. “The Chips Are down for Moore’s Law.” Nature 530 (7589):144–47.

Wallgren, Anders, and Britt Wallgren. 2007. Register-Based Statistics: Administrative Data for Statistical Purposes. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Walton, Gregory M. 2014. “The New Science of Wise Psychological Interventions.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 23 (1):73–82.

Wang, Jing, Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis, and Foster Provost. 2015. “Cost-Effective Quality Assurance in Crowd Labeling.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2479845. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Wang, Wei, David Rothschild, Sharad Goel, and Andrew Gelman. 2015. “Forecasting Elections with Non-Representative Polls.” International Journal of Forecasting 31 (3):980–91.

Warren, Samuel D., and Louis D. Brandeis. 1890. “The Right to Privacy.” Harvard Law Review 4 (5):193–220.

Watkins, Susan Cotts, and Ann Swidler. 2009. “Hearsay Ethnography: Conversational Journals as a Method for Studying Culture in Action.” Poetics 37 (2):162–84.

Watts, Duncan J. 2012. Everything Is Obvious: How Common Sense Fails Us. New York: Crown Business.

———. 2014. “Common Sense and Sociological Explanations.” American Journal of Sociology 120 (2):313–51.

Webb, Eugene J., Donald T. Campbell, Richard D. Schwartz, and Lee Sechrest. 1966. Unobtrusive Measures. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Weisberg, Herbert F. 2005. The Total Survey Error Approach: A Guide to the New Science of Survey Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wendler, David, Leah Belsky, Kimberly M. Thompson, and Ezekiel J. Emanuel. 2005. “Quantifying the Federal Minimal Risk Standard: Implications for Pediatric Research Without a Prospect of Direct Benefit.” JAMA 294 (7):826–32.

Wesolowski, Amy, Caroline O. Buckee, Linus Bengtsson, Erik Wetter, Xin Lu, and Andrew J. Tatem. 2014. “Commentary: Containing the Ebola Outbreak - the Potential and Challenge of Mobile Network Data.” PLoS Currents.

West, Brady T., and Annelies G. Blom. 2016. “Explaining Interviewer Effects: A Research Synthesis.” Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, November.

Westen, Drew, and Robert Rosenthal. 2003. “Quantifying Construct Validity: Two Simple Measures.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84 (3):608–18.

Wickham, H. 2011. “The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis.” Journal of Statistical Software 40 (1):1–29.

Wickham, Hadley. 2007. “Reshaping Data with the Reshape Package.” Journal of Statistical Software 21 (12):1–20.

———. 2009. Ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. New York: Springer.

———. 2015. “Stringr: Simple, Consistent Wrappers for Common String Operations.”

Wickham, Hadley, and Romain Francois. 2015. “Dplyr: A Grammar of Data Manipulation.”

Wiggins, Andrea. 2011. “eBirding: Technology Adoption and the Transformation of Leisure into Science.” In Proceedings of the 2011 iConference, 798–99. iConference ’11. New York: ACM.

Wilke, Claus O. 2016. “Cowplot: Streamlined Plot Theme and Plot Annotations for ’Ggplot2’.”

Willer, David, and Henry Walker. 2007. Building Experiments: Testing Social Theory. Stanford, CA: Stanford Social Sciences.

Williamson, Vanessa. 2016. “On the Ethics of Crowdsourced Research.” PS: Political Science & Politics 49 (1):77–81.

Willis, Derek. 2014. “Professors Research Project Stirs Political Outrage in Montana.” The New York Times, October.

Wilson, Timothy D., Elliot Aronson, and Kevin Carlsmith. 2010. “The Art of Laboratory Experimentation.” In Handbook of Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Wimmer, Andreas, and Kevin Lewis. 2010. “Beyond and Below Racial Homophily: ERG Models of a Friendship Network Documented on Facebook.” American Journal of Sociology 116 (2):583–642.

Windt, Peter Van der, and Macartan Humphreys. 2016. “Crowdseeding in Eastern Congo Using Cell Phones to Collect Conflict Events Data in Real Time.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 60 (4):748–81.

Wolfers, Justin, and Eric Zitzewitz. 2004. “Prediction Markets.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (2):107–26.

Wood, Chris, Brian Sullivan, Marshall Iliff, Daniel Fink, and Steve Kelling. 2011. “eBird: Engaging Birders in Science and Conservation.” PLoS Biology 9 (12):e1001220.

Wu, Felix T. 2013. “Defining Privacy and Utility in Data Sets.” University of Colorado Law Review 84:1117–77.

Xie, Huizhi, and Juliette Aurisset. 2016. “Improving the Sensitivity of Online Controlled Experiments: Case Studies at Netflix.” In ]Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. San Francisco, CA.

Yakowitz, Jane. 2011. “Tragedy of the Data Commons.” Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 25:1.

Yang, Shihao, Mauricio Santillana, and S. C. Kou. 2015. “Accurate Estimation of Influenza Epidemics Using Google Search Data via ARGO.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (47):14473–8.

Yarkoni, Tal, and Jacob Westfall. 2017. “Choosing Prediction over Explanation in Psychology: Lessons from Machine Learning.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, in press.

Yeager, David S., Jon A. Krosnick, LinChiat Chang, Harold S. Javitz, Matthew S. Levendusky, Alberto Simpser, and Rui Wang. 2011. “Comparing the Accuracy of RDD Telephone Surveys and Internet Surveys Conducted with Probability and Non-Probability Samples.” Public Opinion Quarterly 75 (4):709–47.

Yoon, Carol Kaesuk. 1997. “Families Emerge as Silent Victims of Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.” New York Times, May.

Youyou, Wu, Michal Kosinski, and David Stillwell. 2015. “Computer-Based Personality Judgments Are More Accurate Than Those Made by Humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (4):1036–40.

Zevenbergen, Bendert, Brent Mittelstadt, Carissa Véliz, Christian Detweiler, Corinne Cath, Julian Savulescu, and Meredith Whittaker. 2015. “Philosophy Meets Internet Engineering: Ethics in Networked Systems Research. (GTC Workshop Outcomes Paper).” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2666934. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Zhang, Han. 2016. “Causal Effect of Witnessing Political Protest on Civic Engagement.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2647222. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Zhang, Li-Chun. 2000. “Post-Stratification and Calibration: A Synthesis.” American Statistician 54 (3):178–84.

Zhou, Haotian, and Ayelet Fishbach. 2016. “The Pitfall of Experimenting on the Web: How Unattended Selective Attrition Leads to Surprising (yet False) Research Conclusions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 111 (4):493–504.

Zimmer, Michael. 2010. “But the Data Is Already Public: On the Ethics of Research in Facebook.” Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):313–25.

———. 2016. “OkCupid Study Reveals the Perils of Big-Data Science.” Wired.

Zimmerman, Birgitte. 2016. “Information and Power: Ethical Considerations of Political Information Experiments.” In Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals, edited by Scott Desposato, 183–97. New York: Routledge.

Zittrain, Jonathan. 2008. “Ubiquitous Human Computing.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366 (1881):3813–21.

Zizzo, Daniel John. 2010. “Experimenter Demand Effects in Economic Experiments.” Experimental Economics 13 (1):75–98.

Zook, Matthew, Solon Barocas, danah boyd, Kate Crawford, Emily Keller, Seeta Peña Gangadharan, Alyssa Goodman, et al. 2017. “Ten Simple Rules for Responsible Big Data Research.” PLOS Computational Biology 13 (3):e1005399.