### 3.3.2 Muyeso

Muyeso ndi za kupanga inferences zimene anafunsidwa wanu kuti zimene anafunsidwa wanu ndi kuchita.

Gulu lachiwiri la okwana chimango zolakwa kafukufuku ndi muyeso; chimene chikuchita ndi mmene tingagwiritsire inferences ku mayankho anafunsidwa anapereka ku mafunso athu. Likukhalira kuti mayankho timalandira, choncho inferences timapanga, mukhoza njira pa otsutsa-ndi zina zodabwitsa chimodzimodzi momwe ife tikupempha. Mwina kanthu zikutsindika mfundo yofunika kuposa nthabwala m'buku zodabwitsa Kufunsa Mafunso ndi Norman Bradburn, Seymour Sudman, ndi Brian Wansink (2004) :

ansembe awiri, Dominican ndi Akatolika, mukukambirana ngati kuli tchimo fodya ndi kupemphera nthawi yomweyo. Pambuyo kulephera kufika mapeto, aliyense anapita kukaonana ziwalo abwana ake. The Dominican anati, "Kodi Lankhulani wamkulu?"

The Akatolika Yankho, "Iye anati izo zinali ziri bwino."

"Ndizo zachirendo" ndi Dominican akuyankha, "bwana anga anati izo zinali tchimo."

The wachikatolika anati, "Kodi inu akumpempha Iye?" The Dominican akuyankha, "Ine ndinamufunsa iye ngati icho chinali chabwino kusuta pamene akupemphera." "O," anati Akatolika, "Ine ndinamufunsa ngati sikulakwa kupemphera pamene fodya."

Pali zitsanzo zambiri za anomalies ngati wina anakumana ndi ansembe awiri. Ndipotu nkhani kwambiri pa muzu wa nthabwala uyu ali ndi dzina mu dera kafukufuku kafukufuku: funso mawonekedwe zotsatira (Kalton and Schuman 1982) . Kuti muone zotsatira funso mawonekedwe mwina zimakhudzira Kafukufuku weniweni, ganizirani izi awiri ofanana kwambiri mafunso wowoneka kafukufuku:

• "Kodi mukugwirizana ndi mawu awa: Anthu zambiri mlandu kuposa zikhalidwe pa mlandu ndi kusayeruzika mu dziko lino."
• "Kodi mukugwirizana ndi mawu otsatirawa: zinthu Social zambiri mlandu kuposa anthu kuti upandu ndi kusayeruzika mu dziko lino."

Ngakhale mafunso onse amaoneka kuyeza chinthu chomwecho, iwo anapeza zinthu zosiyana mu kafukufuku weniweni kafukufuku (Schuman and Presser 1996) . Atafunsidwa njira imodzi, 60% amene anafunsidwa inanena kuti anthu adali mlandu pa mlandu, koma pamene anapempha njira zina pafupifupi 60% inanena kuti zikhalidwe adali mlandu (Chithunzi 3.2). M'mawu ena, kusiyana kochepa pakati pa mafunso awiri zingachititse ofufuza kunena mosiyana.

Kuwonjezera pa dongosolo la funso, anafunsidwa tikhozanso kupereka mayankho osiyanasiyana potengera mawu enieni ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, kuti ayeze maganizo pankhani ya zinthu zofunika boma, anafunsidwa anali kuwerenga mwamsanga izi:

"Ife akukumana ndi mavuto ambiri m'dziko lino, palibe amene angathetsedwe mosavuta kapena zosalira ndalama zambiri. Ine ndikuti Ena mavuto amenewa, ndipo aliyense Ndikufuna mundiuze ine ngati mukuganiza ife ndalama zochuluka kwambiri pa izo, ndalama yochepa kwambiri, kapena za kuchuluka. "

". Chithandizo kwa osauka" Next, theka anayankha anafunsidwa za "moyo" ndi theka anafunsidwa za Ngakhale izi zingaoneke monga mawu awiri osiyana a chinthu chomwecho, iwo Mwinamwake zotsatira zosiyana kwambiri (Chithunzi 3.3); America amanena pokhala zambiri kuthandiza "chithandizo kwa osauka" ndi "moyo" (Smith 1987; Rasinski 1989; Huber and Paris 2013) . Pamene ofufuza kafukufuku kuganizira zotsatira mawu kukhala anomalies, iwo akanakhoza kuganizira iwo anapezazo kafukufuku. Ndiko kuti, taphunzira chinachake za maganizo a anthu ku chotsatirachi.

Zitsanzozi za funso zotsatira mawonekedwe ndi zotsatira mawu akusonyeza mayankho amene ofufuza kulandira angakhudzidwe m'njira zina zochokera mmene mafunso awo. Izi sizikutanthauza kuti kufufuza sayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito; Nthawi zambiri palibe mankhwala. M'malo mwake, zitsanzo zosonyeza kuti tiyenera kumanga mafunso athu mosamala ndipo sitiyenera kulandira mayankho uncritically.

Ambiri concretely, izi zikutanthauza kuti ngati inu kusanthula deta kafukufuku anasonkhana wina, onetsetsani kuti mwawerenga mafunso enieni. Ndipo, ngati inu kupanga mafunso anu, ine ndi mfundo zitatu. Choyamba, ine amati inu kuwerenga zambiri za mafunso kapangidwe (mwachitsanzo, Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink (2004) ); pali zambiri kuposa ndakwanitsa kufotokoza apa. Chachiwiri, ndiganiza kuti kutengera-mawu okhudza ku Kafukufuku apamwamba. Ngakhale izi zikumveka ngati plagiarism, mafunso kukopera amalimbikitsa kafukufuku kafukufuku (malingana ngati inu mukufuna kuti kalembera original). Ngati inu kutengera mafunso kuchokera Kafukufuku apamwamba, dziwani kuti anayesedwa ndipo inu mukhoza kufanizira ndi mayankho ndi kafukufuku anu mayankho ena kafukufuku ena. Pomaliza, ine amati inu Pre-kuyesa mafunso anu ndi anthu ena chimango anthu anu (Presser et al. 2004) ; zimene ndinaona kuti chisanadze kuyezetsa nthawizonse limasonyeza nkhani zodabwitsa.