### 4.6.1 Pangani zero deta variable mtengo

Chinsinsi kuthamanga zatsopano lalikulu akuyendetsa galimoto mtengo wanu variable kuti zero. The njira yabwino ndi zochita zokha ndi angagwiritse zatsopano zosangalatsa.

Intaneti zatsopano akhoza nyumba kwambiri osiyana mtengo ndipo izi mozindikira ofufuza kuthamanga nkhaniyi anali zosatheka m'mbuyomu. Komanso mwapadera, zatsopano zambiri mitundu iwiri yaikulu ya ndalama. Ndalama atathana ndi ndalama variable ndalama atathana ndi ndalama kuti sakusintha malinga ndi mmene ophunzira ambiri muli. Mwachitsanzo, mu kuyesera ndi labu, ndalama lokhazikika angakhale mtengo wa lendi danga ndi kugula katundu. Variable ndalama, Komano, kusintha malinga ndi mmene ophunzira ambiri muli. Mwachitsanzo, mu kuyesera ndi labu, ndalama variable angakhale malipiro ndodo ndi ophunzira. Ambiri, zatsopano analogi ndi otsika mtengo atathana ndi mkulu ndalama variable, ndipo zatsopano digito ndi mkulu ndalama atathana ndi otsika mtengo variable (Chithunzi 4.18). Ndi kapangidwe yoyenera, inu akhoza kuyendetsa mtengo variable wa kuyesera anu onse zero, ndipo izi angalenge mwayi kafukufuku zosangalatsa.

Pali zinthu ziwiri zikuluzikulu za variable mtengo-malipiro kwa ogwira ntchito ndipo ndalama kwa ophunzira ndipo aliyense mwa anthu amenewa kukafika ku zero ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana. Malipiro kwa ogwira amachokera kwa ntchito kufufuza ogwira kodi kupeza ophunzira, kupereka mankhwala ndi kuyeza zakambidwa. Mwachitsanzo, analogi munda kuyesa kwa Schultz ndi anzake (2007) pa malamulo chikhalidwe ndi wakagwiritsidwe magetsi ogwira chofunika kafukufuku kupita ku nyumba iliyonse kupulumutsa mankhwala ndi kuwerenga mita magetsi (Chithunzi 4.3). Zonse za kuyesayesa ndi ogwira kafukufuku anatanthauza kuti kuwonjezera banja latsopano kuphunzira Baibulo awonjezera mtengo. Komano, kwa digito munda kuyesa kwa Restivo ndi van de Rijt (2012) pa mphoto mu Wikipedia, ofufuza zingawonjezere ophunzira kwambiri pafupifupi kwaulere. A strategy wamkulu kuchepetsa ndalama variable utsogoleri ndi m'malo ntchito anthu (omwe ndi odula) ndi ntchito kompyuta (ndiko wotchipa). Ziri, mungadzifunse: akhoza kuyesera kuthamanga pamene aliyense pa gulu kafukufuku wanga akugona? Ngati yankho ndi inde, iwe wagwira ntchito yaikulu ya zokha.

Wachiwiri mtundu waukulu wa mtengo variable ndi malipiro kwa ophunzira. Akatswiri ena ntchito Amazon Mawotchi Turk ndi misika ena Intaneti ntchito kuti muchepetse ndalama zimene zingamuthandize ophunzira. Kuyendetsa variable ndalama njira yonse kuti zero Komabe, njira ina chofunika. Kwa nthawi yaitali, ofufuza cholinga nkhaniyi ali wosangalatsa iwo kulipira anthu kutengapo mbali. Koma bwanji ngati inu mukhoza kulenga kuyesera kuti anthu ndikufuna kuti? Ichi chikhonza kumveka mpaka chigumula, koma Ine ndikupatsani chitsanzo pansi pa ntchito zanga ndipo pali zitsanzo zambiri Table 4.4. Onani kuti njira imeneyi kuti angagwiritse zatsopano zosangalatsa likumveka zina mwa nkhani mu Chapter 3 ponena angagwiritse Kafukufuku kukoma kwambiri ndi Chapter 5 za kamangidwe ka mgwirizano misa. Choncho, ine ndikuganiza kuti ophunzira zosangalatsa zimene likhoza kutchedwa wosuta zinachitikira-adzakhala ndi mbali zofunika kwambiri za kamangidwe kafukufuku mu m'badwo digito.

Table 4.4: Zitsanzo za zatsopano ndi zero mtengo variable kuti kulipidwa ophunzira ndi kutumikira lofunika kapena yosangalatsa.
malipilo tikalemba
Website ndi umoyo Centola (2010)
zolimbitsa thupi pulogalamu Centola (2011)
Free nyimbo Salganik, Dodds, and Watts (2006) ; Salganik and Watts (2008) ; Salganik and Watts (2009b)
Kupita Kokasangalala masewera Kohli et al. (2012)
ayamikira Movie Harper and Konstan (2015)

Ngati mukufuna kulenga zero variable ndalama zatsopano inu mudzafuna kuonetsetsa kuti zonse makina mokwanira ndi kuti ophunzira popanda malipiro alionse. Kuti tisonyeze mmene tingachitire zimenezi, ine pofotokoza zolemba pamaphunziro kafukufuku wanga pa bwino ndi kulephera mankhwala chikhalidwe. chitsanzo Zimasonyezanso kuti zero variable deta mtengo si za kuchita zinthu mtengo. Kani, ndi za kuwapangitsa nkhaniyi sakanati payekha.

zolemba pamaphunziro anga ankawalangiza chifukwa chikhalidwe yankholi kupambana kwa mankhwala chikhalidwe. Hit songs, bwino mabuku, ndi mafilimu blockbuster ndi zambiri, chipambano kuposa ambiri. Chifukwa chaichi, misika kwa mankhwala amenewa nthawi zambiri amatchedwa "wopambana-kutenga-onse" misika. Koma pa nthawi yomweyo, amene makamaka song, buku, kapena filimu adzakhala bwino amazipanga sizimadziwika. The screenwriter William Goldman (1989) elegantly mwachidule zambiri kafukufuku zamaphunziro ndi kunena kuti, pamene izo zifika akuneneratu bwino, "palibe amene akudziwa chirichonse." The unpredictability wa wopambana-kutenga onse misika zinandipangitsa ine ndikudabwa mmene bwino chifukwa khalidwe ndi kuchuluka chabe mwayi. Kapena, anasonyeza pang'ono mosiyana, ngati ife tikanakhoza kulenga Zolengedwa kufanana ndi iwo onse kusintha paokha, kodi yemweyo nyimbo zatchuka aliyense dziko? Ndipo ngati ayi, kodi mukhoza kukhala limagwirira kuti chimachititsa kusiyana?

Kuti tiyankhe mafunso amenewa, ife-Peter Dodds, Duncan Watts (zolemba pamaphunziro mlangizi wanga), ndipo ine-anathamanga angapo Intaneti zatsopano kumunda. Makamaka tinamanga webusaiti wotchedwa MusicLab kumene anthu akhoza kupeza nyimbo yatsopano, ndi ife ntchito mndandanda wa zinthu zatsopano. Ife alemba ntchito ophunzira ndi kuthamanga malonda mbendera pa webusaiti ausinkhu chidwi (Chithunzi 4.19) ndipo mwa akutchula TV. Ophunzira akufika pa webusaiti anapereka athu mozindikira chilolezo, anamaliza yochepa maziko mafunso, ndipo mosintha anatumizidwa kwa mmodzi wa mphamvu awiri experimental zinthu-mwayekha chikhalidwe. Mu chikhalidwe ufulu ophunzira munasankha zimene nyimbo kumvera, anapatsidwa ndi mayina a magulu nyimbo. Ngakhale kumvetsera nyimbo, ophunzira anafunsidwa kuti Voterani kenako mwayi (koma osati choyenera) download nyimbo. Mu chikhalidwe mphamvu ya maubwenzi, ophunzira nacho chokuchitikirani chomwecho, koma iwo akhoza kuona kangati aliyense nyimbo anali dawunilodi ndi ophunzira yapita. Komanso, ophunzira mu chikhalidwe mphamvu ya maubwenzi anali mosintha anatumizidwa kwa mmodzi wa asanu ndi atatu maiko kufanana lililonse kusanduka paokha (Chithunzi 4.20). Ntchito ndondomeko imeneyi, tinayenda zatsopano ziwiri. Choyamba, tinaonetsa ophunzira nyimbo mu gululi unsorted, amene anawapatsa mbendera zofooka za kutchuka. Mu kuyesera wachiwiri, tinaonetsa nyimbo mndandanda pachikhalidwe, amene anapereka mphamvu zambiri chizindikiro cha kutchuka (Chithunzi 4.21).

Tinapeza kuti kutchuka kwa nyimbo wosiyana kudutsa zolengedwa ankatanthauza kwambiri za mwayi. Mwachitsanzo, m'dziko lina nyimbo "Lockdown" ndi 52Metro anabwera 1, ndi m'dziko wina anabwera 40 kuchokera 48 nyimbo. Izi zinali chimodzimodzi nyimbo yomweyo kupikisana motsutsana nyimbo yomweyo, koma mu dziko lina ilo mwayi ndi ena sanali. Komanso, poyerekezera zotsatira kudutsa zatsopano ziwiri tinapeza kuti mphamvu ya maubwenzi kumabweretsa zambiri wosiyana bwino, zomwe mwina amalenga kuoneka predictability. Koma, akuyang'ana kutsidya zolengedwa (amene sakhoza panja wa mtundu uwu wa zolengedwa kufanana kuyesera), tinapeza kuti mphamvu ya maubwenzi kwenikweni adakula unpredictability. Komanso, n'zosadabwitsa kuti zinali nyimbo za pempho apamwamba kuti ndi zotsatira zake kwambiri sizimadziwika (Chithunzi 4.22).

MusicLab anatha kuthamanga pa kwenikweni zero mtengo variable chifukwa cha njira imene anaikonza. Choyamba, chirichonse chinali makina mokwanira choncho anatha kuthamanga pamene ine ndinali kugona. Chachiwiri, malipilo anali mfulu nyimbo chotero panalibe variable mtengo ophunzira chipukuta misozi. Ntchito nyimbo chipukuta misozi komanso imasonyeza mmene pali nthawi zina malonda pa pakati ndalama atathana ndi ndalama variable. Ntchito nyimbo kuchuluka ndalama ndi yoikidwiratu chifukwa ndinali kuthera nthawi apeze chilolezo magulu ndi kukonza malipoti zingwe za zimene ophunzira nyimbo zawo. Koma, mu nkhani iyi, kuchuluka ndalama anakonza kuti ndichepe zosintha ndalama anali zoyenera kuchita; chimene kwatithandiza kuthamanga kuyesera kuti anali pafupifupi 100 zina zazikulu kuposa kafukufuku muyezo labu.

Komanso zatsopano MusicLab bwanji kuti zero mtengo variable alibe zidzatha palokha; kani, izo zingakhale njira kuti akuthamanga mtundu watsopano wa kuyesera. Onani kuti sitinali ntchito zonse za gulu lathu kuthamanga muyezo mphamvu ya maubwenzi labu kafukufuku nthawi 100. M'malo mwake, tinachita chinachake chosiyana, chimene inu mukhoza kuganizira momwe kusintha kafukufuku wa maganizo ndi sociological kuyesera (Hedström 2006) . M'malo moganizira munthu posankha zochita, ife maganizo kafukufuku wathu pa kutchuka, zotsatira gulu. Izi lophimba kuti ziyende gulu tinangoona kuti chofunika 700 ophunzira kuti apange deta limodzi mfundo (panali anthu 700 mwa aliyense wa zolengedwa kufanana). lonse kuti zinali zotheka chifukwa cha dongosolo ndalama zimenezo. Ambiri, ngati akatswiri akufuna kuphunzira mmene gulu lakenso chichokera zosankha munthu, zatsopano gulu monga MusicLab ndi yosangalatsa kwambiri. Kale, iwo akhala logistically zovuta, koma mavuto amenewa anayamba kuchepa chifukwa cha mwayi zero deta variable mtengo.

Kuwonjezera chitsanzo ubwino zero deta variable mtengo, ndi zatsopano MusicLab amasonyezanso vuto ndi njira imeneyi: ndalama mkulu lokhazikika. Zikatero, ndinachita mwayi kwambiri kugwira ntchito ndi ukonde luso mapulogalamu dzina lake Peter Hausel kwa miyezi isanu ndi umodzi kumanga zimenezo. Izi zinali zotheka chifukwa mlangizi wanga, Duncan Watts, analandira angapo amapereka kuthandiza mtundu uwu wa kufufuza. Technology bwino chifukwa tinamanga MusicLab mu 2004, ndipo zingakhale zosavuta kuti amange kuyesera monga chonchi tsopano. Koma, njira mkulu lokhazikika mtengo kwenikweni Zimatheka kuti akatswiri amene m'njira inayake kuphimba ndalama zimenezo.

Pomaliza, zatsopano digito akhoza nyumba mtengo kwambiri wosiyana kuposa zatsopano analogi. Ngati mukufuna kuthamanga zatsopano kwenikweni lalikulu, inu ayesetse kuchepa mtengo wanu variable ngati kuli kotheka komanso Choncho njira yonse 0. Mukhoza kuchita izi ndi makina zimango za kafukufuku lanu (mwachitsanzo, m'malo nthawi anthu ndi nthawi kompyuta) ndipo angagwiritse nkhaniyi anthu akufuna kukhala. Akatswiri amene akhoza kupanga choti zinthu izi athe kuthamanga mitundu yatsopano ya zatsopano zimene sizinali zotheka m'mbuyomu.